Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a large selection of highly pure and biologically active actin proteins, actin binding proteins, antibodies, buffers and research Biochem Kits™. Our Actin Biochem Kits allow researchers easy access to some of the most powerful in vivo and in vitro assays employed in the field. Many citations exist where these products have been used to solve some fundamental questions in biology.
Recent Discoveries on ABP’s and their Effect on Synaptic Plasticity
Rapid changes occurring at the level of microscale connections between neurons are the primary mechanism for learning and memory and are known as synaptic plasticity. Dendritic spines are dynamic structures with essential roles in brain connectivity and their ongoing formation, disappearance, and stabilization are critical for long-term synaptic plasticity. The actin cytoskeleton is a structural element underlying the proper development and morphology of dendritic spines, where it controls the morphological and structural changes induced by synapse activation. The three-dimensional structure and dynamics of actin filament networks are regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs). We describe recent studies highlighting both established and novel actin binding proteins and their effect on synaptic plasticity.
Actin: A Critical Player In Cancer Cell Immunosurveillance
Actin is a globular protein that can assemble into filamentous structures and is a foundational member of the cytoskeleton network in cells. Actin has well-established roles in muscle contraction, vesicle movement, cell motility, and many other biological processes. Emerging studies have highlighted its essential role in regulation of the immune system, whereby, mutations in actin and actin binding proteins (ABPs) lead to an array of inflammatory and/or immunodeficiency disorders(1). Actin related mutations that affect the immune system have been identified to affect hematopoietic cells leading to defective function of the immune cells(2). This is of particular interest as the growing literature suggests that the immune system plays a significant role in many diseases including cancer(3). Here, we highlight several new studies investigating actin’s function in cancer cells and its impact on immunosurveillance and cancer progression.
Actin Tools In Action - Citation Spotlights
Mechanical Actions Of Dendritic-Spine Enlargement On Presynaptic Exocytosis
UBE2L3, a Partner of MuRF1/TRIM63, Is Involved in the Degradation of Myofibrillar Actin and Myosin
Communication between neurons in the brain is generally associated with electrochemical signaling. Haruo Kasai’s laboratory discovered that dendritic spines could be stimulated to enlarge rapidly, which at the time they hypothesized could result in pressing against the presynaptic boutons in the synaptic junction and elicit an effect; however, at the time the tools to effectively investigate this phenomenon wasn’t available. In this recent study, the group validated their theory that physical forces elicited by dendritic spine enlargement can produce mechanosensory force signals in presynaptic boutons. In order to effectively investigate this phenomenon they utilized three novel technologies including a novel fluorescent protein called iFLuSnFR that detects glutamate release, an imaging technique to track SNARE complex assembly, and their tools to optogenetically induce....
Severe muscle wasting, cachexia, occurs in many diseases such as heart failure and cancer, and is a significant contributor to morbidity and even mortality. Skeletal muscle proteolysis, driven by the ubiquitin proteasome system, is a primary mechanism that facilitates muscle wasting. A comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitin enzymes responsible for protein turnover of cytoskeletal proteins such as actin are not fully understood; however, the E3 ligase, MuRF1, has been shown to target both alpha-actin and myosin heavy chain proteins. In this study, Peris-Moreno et al. sought to uncover the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme responsible for cytoskeletal protein targeting and identified the UBE2L3 enzyme as an essential component of the UPS that controls cytoskeletal protein turnover. Cell myotubule models using C2C12 cells was treated with....
Cytoskeleton's line of Actin Tools
Browe Cytoskeleton Inc's selection of tools by clicking the brochure above, or the button below which will take you to a category page which you can navigate to see our full selection of Actin Tools.
Actin stains and probes are used in determining the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells. The actin cytoskeleton is a very dynamic and labile structure in the living cell, but it can be fixed by either cold methanol or paraformaldehyde prior to probing or staining for actin structures.
Cytoskeleton has also prepared a collection of Actin information resources. This info can be useful to investigators at various stages in their actin research, click the button below to navigate through this information