Product Uses Include
The human cofilin protein (isotype 1) has been produced in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein has a molecular weight of approximately 21 kDa, and does not contain a protein purification tag. Recombinant cofilin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography. Cofilin is one member of a large group of proteins characterized as “actin binding proteins” (ABPs). Cofilin is an essential cellular protein that can bind the barbed end of actin. In the cell, cofilin acts in concert with other regulatory proteins to mediate the response of the actin cytoskeleton to extracellular signals. In vertebrates, cofilin is regulated by pH, phosphorylation and phosphoinositides. Recombinant cofilin is supplied as a white lyophilized powder. The lyophilized protein is stable at 4°C desiccated (<10% humidity) for 1 year. When reconstituted with nanopure water, the protein will be in the following buffer: 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 1 mM EGTA, 5% sucrose and 1% dextran. The reconstituted protein can be stored at -70°C for up to 6 months or at 4°C for up to 2 weeks with the addition of 100 µg/ml ampicillin and 5 µg/ml chloramphenicol witout any noticeable loss of activity.
Protein purity is determined by scanning densitometry of Coomassie Blue stained protein on a 4-20% gradient polyacrylamide gel. The Cofilin protein is 95% pure (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Cofilin protein purity determination. A 20 µg sample of CF01 (cofilin molecular weight approx. 21 kDa) was separated by electrophoresis in a 4-20% SDS-PAGE system, and stained with Coomassie Blue.
The biological activity of recombinant cofilin is determined by its ability to bind and sever F-actin in a pH dependent manner. Below pH 7.0 cofilin binds to F-actin in a 1:1 molar ratio of cofilin to actin monomer in the filament. Above pH 7.0 cofilin will sever actin filaments and bind actin monomer in a 1:1 molar ratio. A standard biological assay for monitoring the actin binding and severing activity of cofilin consists of SDS-PAGE analysis of F-actin/cofilin spin down assays performed at pH 6.8 and 8.0. Stringent quality control ensures that at pH 6.8 only 20% of cofilin and actin are found in the supernatant, and that a 1:1 molar ratio of cofilin to actin protein is present in the pellet. Furthermore, at pH 8.0 approximately 80% of cofilin and actin are found in the supernatant due to the F-actin severing activity of cofilin.
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|Giampazolias, Evangelos et al.||Secreted gelsolin inhibits DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation and cancer immunity||Cell||2021||ISSN 1097-4172|
|Limatola, Nunzia et al.||Nicotine Induces Polyspermy in Sea Urchin Eggs through a Non-Cholinergic Pathway Modulating Actin Dynamics||Cells||2019||ISSN 2073-4409|
|Piroli, Gerardo G. et al.||Identification of novel protein targets of DMF modification in neurons and astrocytes reveals actions independent of Nrf2 stabilization||Molecular and Cellular Proteomics||2019||ISSN 1535-9484|
|Mikhaylova, Marina et al.||Caldendrin Directly Couples Postsynaptic Calcium Signals to Actin Remodeling in Dendritic Spines||Neuron||2018||ISSN 1097-4199|
|Cabrales Fontela, Yunior et al.||Multivalent cross-linking of actin filaments and microtubules through the microtubule-associated protein Tau||Nature Communications||2017||ISSN 2041-1723|
|Dräger, Nina M et al.||Bin1 directly remodels actin dynamics through its BAR domain||EMBO reports||2017||ISSN 1469--221X|
|Roybal, Kole T. et al.||Computational spatiotemporal analysis identifies WAVE2 and cofilin as joint regulators of costimulation-mediated T cell actin dynamics||Science Signaling||2016||ISSN 1937-9145|
|Luo, Shen et al.||Taurine chloramine-induced inactivation of cofilin protein through methionine oxidation||Free Radical Biology and Medicine||2014||ISSN 1873-4596|
|Clement, James P. et al.||Pathogenic SYNGAP1 mutations impair cognitive development by disrupting maturation of dendritic spine synapses||Cell||2012||ISSN 1097-4172|
|Nusco, Gilda A. et al.||Modulation of calcium signalling by the actin-binding protein cofilin||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications||2006||ISSN 0006-291X|
|Loomis, Patricia A. et al.||Espin cross-links cause the elongation of microvillus-type parallel actin bundles in vivo||2003||PMID 14657236|
|Vignjevic, Danijela et al.||Formation of filopodia-like bundles in vitro from a dendritic network||Journal of Cell Biology||2003||ISSN 0021--9525|
|Yokoo, Tomotaka et al.||p57Kip2 Regulates Actin Dynamics by Binding and Translocating LIM-kinase 1 to the Nucleus *||Journal of Biological Chemistry||2003||ISSN 0021--9258|
|Idrissi, Fatima Zahra et al.||Cofilin, but not profilin, is required for myosin-I-induced actin polymerization and the endocytic uptake in yeast||Molecular Biology of the Cell||2002||ISSN 1059-1524|
Question 1: After reconstituting the lyophilized protein with water, what is the composition of the buffer the cofilin protein is in?
Answer 1: The protein should be reconstituted to 5 mg/ml by the addition of 20 µl of distilled water. The protein will be in the following buffer; 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 1 mM EGTA pH 8.0, 5% sucrose, and 1% dextran. In order to maintain high biological activity of the protein, it is strongly recommended that the protein solution be supplemented with DTT to 1 mM final concentration
Question 2: To separate the F-actin bound to cofilin, is it absolutely necessary to spin the sample at 100,000 x g?
Answer 2: If possible we recommend spinning the F-actin/cofilin complex at 100,000 x g to absolutely insure that the protein complex pellets. Check with your university’s core facilities or neighboring labs for access to an ultracentrifuge. However, in a pinch, spinning at 50,000 x g should pellet the majority of the complex.
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