MAP4 Regulates Tubulin to Control Cardiac Disease


Microtubules (MTs) are long, tube-like structures formed by uniformly assembled conserved α/β-tubulin subunits 1. They are one of the main components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton1. MTs interact with MT-associated proteins (MAPs) and assemble into specialized structures to perform diverse cellular functions 2. Specifically, they are critical in the assembly of mitotic and meiotic spindles, neuronal development, and the formation of the ciliary axoneme 2. MAPs are diverse groups of effector proteins that bind to the MTs within the cell, promoting their polymerization, stability, structure and function 2. MAPs have unique structures that are critical for their function in various cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, intracellular organization, and trafficking of organelles, among others 3.

MAPs can be categorized into two main types: structural MAPs and molecular motors 4,5. Structural MAPs are crucial in the organization and stability of MT cytoskeleton 4. On the other hand, molecular motors facilitate molecules' movement along the MTs 4.  Structural MAPs —MAP2, tau, and MAP4— are well characterized and perform various functions 6,7. MAP2 and tau are mainly expressed in neuronal cells. In contrast, MAP4 is a cytosolic MT binding protein ubiquitously expressed in many cells and tissues and is critical for regulating MT dynamics 8,9. MAPs regulate tubulin dynamics through post-translational modifications (PTMs)3,10; thus, tight regulation of tubulin PTMs is critical for proper function. This newsletter will explore MAP4's intricate role in controlling cardiac disease pathways through its control of tubulin dynamics.


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Also included in this newsletter:

  • Tubulin and Microtubule Tools
  • Related Publications