Small G-Proteins And Microvesicle-Mediated Cancer Biogenesis

Under control of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), small G-proteins cycle between the inactive GDP-bound state and the active GTP-bound state; thus, acting as molecular switches in a diverse multitude of cellular processes1. Small G-proteins have been implicated  as central modulators of biological processes including cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell movement2,3. It is now widely recognized that aberrant activity of small G-proteins belonging to the Ras superfamily, which were initially characterized as tumor oncoproteins, contribute heavily to the role of human diseases such as cancer4. Their importance is so integral that scientists continue to link small G-proteins to a wide range of cellular processes involved in tumor progression and metastasis.

Microvesicles (MVs), a type of extracellular vesicle (EV) shed from the outward blebbling of cellular plasma membranes with a diameter of 100-1000 nm, play a role in oncogenesis5. Although the underlying mechanisms of MV generation and release are not completely understood, the impact of microvesicular cargo is well known. 

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