Product Uses Include
The Ras superfamily of small GTPases (such as Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf and Ran proteins) serve as binary switches cycling between a GDP-bound “OFF state” and a GTP-bound “ON state”, which mediates signals downstream. In cells, the cycling between the two states is mainly controlled by two types of regulatory proteins: the activating Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and the inactivating GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs).
Small G-proteins of the Ras superfamily typically have an inrinsic GTPase activity, meaning that after they get activated (GTP-bound) by GEFs, they eventually “turn themselves off”. The intrinsic GTPase rate, however, is normally very slow, so the “automatic” turning off process can take up to hours.
Because of the slow intrinsic GTPase activity in most Ras superfamily GTPases, their GAPs are important signaling molecules that function to terminate their signaling. GAPs function by binding to the active, GTP-bound, form of their target G-proteins and greatly stimulating the G-protein’s intrinsic GTPase activity, thereby quickly turning off the G-protein.
This GAP assay kit measures the amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi) that is produced as a result of G-protein dependent hydrolysis of GTP to GDP + Pi. The kit contains all the reagents needed for the assay including GTPases, a positive control RhoGAP, carefully optimized buffers and phosphate detection reagent. The assay can be performed in either 96-well plates or in 384-well plates. There is enough reagents for 80 assays (20 for each provided GTPase) in the 96-well format and 160 assays (40 for each provided GTPase) in the 384-well format
While the kit comes with Cdc42, Rac1, RhoA and Ras proteins, it can also be used for any other Ras superfamily GTPase. See our G-protein product family web page for other GTPases available from Cytoskeleton.
For a kit to measure GEF activity, see Cat. # BK100.
THe kit contains sufficient materials for 80-160 assays. The following components are included:
The GTPase activity of RhoA with and without the addition of the catalytic domain of p50RhoGAP was tested (Fig 1).
Figure 1. RhoGAP activity measured as GTP hydrolysis by RhoA protein. Each reaction contained reaction buffer + GTP with the addition of RhoA alone (RhoA), RhoGAP alone (GAP), or RhoA + RhoGAP (RhoA + GAP). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min. Phosphate generated by hydrolysis of GTP was measured by the addition of CytoPhos™ reagent and reading of absorbance at 650 nm.
Lee, S., Salazar, S. V., Cox, T. O. & Strittmatter, S. M. Pyk2 signaling through graf1 and rhoA GTPase is required for amyloid-β oligomer-triggered synapse loss. J. Neurosci. 39, 1910–1929 (2019).
Shin, Y. et al. RASAL3 preferentially stimulates GTP hydrolysisof the rho family small GTPase rac2. Biomed. Reports 9, 241–246 (2018).
Nüchel, J. et al. TGFB1 is secreted through an unconventional pathway dependent on the autophagic machinery and cytoskeletal regulators. Autophagy 14, 465–486 (2018).
Lin, Y.-H. et al. RAB10 Interacts with the Male Germ Cell-Specific GTPase-Activating Protein during Mammalian Spermiogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, 97 (2017).
Sarowar, T., Grabrucker, S., Boeckers, T. M. & Grabrucker, A. M. Object Phobia and Altered RhoA Signaling in Amygdala of Mice Lacking RICH2. Front. Mol. Neurosci. 10, 180 (2017).
Taniuchi et al., 2012. BART Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion by Rac1 Inactivation through Direct Binding to Active Rac1. Neoplasia. v 14, pp 440–450.
Gaus et al., 2011. Destabilization of YopE by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Fine-Tunes Yop Delivery into Host Cells and Facilitates Systemic Spread of Yersinia enterocolitica in Host Lymphoid Tissue. Infect. Immun. v 79, pp 1166-1175.
Zhang et al., 2010. A Novel Testis-specific GTPase Serves as a Link to Proteasome Biogenesis: Functional Characterization of RhoS/RSA-14-44 in Spermatogenesis. Mol. Biol. Cell. v 21, pp 4312–4324.
Rothenfluh et al., 2006. Distinct Behavioral Responses to Ethanol Are Regulated by Alternate RhoGAP18B Isoforms. Cell. v 127, pp 199–211.
|Lee, Suho et al.||Pyk2 signaling through graf1 and rhoA GTPase is required for amyloid-β oligomer-triggered synapse loss||Journal of Neuroscience||2019||ISSN 1529-2401|
|Diring, Jessica et al.||RPEL-family rhoGAPs link Rac/Cdc42 GTP loading to G-actin availability||Nature Cell Biology||2019||ISSN 1476-4679|
|Li, Ching Fei et al.||Snail-induced claudin-11 prompts collective migration for tumour progression||Nature Cell Biology||2019||ISSN 1476-4679|
|Nüchel, Julian et al.||TGFB1 is secreted through an unconventional pathway dependent on the autophagic machinery and cytoskeletal regulators||Autophagy||2018||ISSN 1554-8635|
|Shin, Yoonjae et al.||RASAL3 preferentially stimulates GTP hydrolysisof the rho family small GTPase rac2||Biomedical Reports||2018||ISSN 2049-9442|
|Palsuledesai, Charuta C. et al.||Activation of Rho Family GTPases by Small Molecules||ACS Chemical Biology||2018||ISSN 1554-8937|
|Lin, Ying Hung et al.||RAB10 interacts with the male germ cell-specific GTPase-activating protein during mammalian spermiogenesis||International Journal of Molecular Sciences||2017||ISSN 1422-0067|
|Sarowar, Tasnuva et al.||Object phobia and altered RhoA signaling in amygdala of mice lacking RICH2||Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience||2017||ISSN 1662-5099|
|Bendris, Nawal et al.||SNX9 promotes metastasis by enhancing cancer cell invasion via differential regulation of RhoGTPases||Molecular Biology of the Cell||2016||ISSN 1939-4586|
|Hernandez-Flores, Araceli et al.||A new nucleocytoplasmic RhoGAP protein contributes to control the pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica by regulating EhRacC and EhRacD activity||Cellular Microbiology||2016||ISSN 1462-5822|
|Bai, Xue et al.||The smooth muscle-selective RhoGAP GRAF3 is a critical regulator of vascular tone and hypertension||Nature Communications||2013||ISSN 2041-1723|
|Zanin, Esther et al.||A conserved RhoGAP limits M phase contractility and coordinates with microtubule asters to confine RhoA during Cytokinesis||Developmental Cell||2013||ISSN 1534-5807|
|de Kreuk, Bart Jan et al.||The Human Minor Histocompatibility Antigen1 Is a RhoGAP||PLoS ONE||2013||ISSN 1932-6203|
|Xu, Jie et al.||RhoGAPs Attenuate Cell Proliferation by Direct Interaction with p53 Tetramerization Domain||Cell Reports||2013||ISSN 2211-1247|
|Taniuchi, Keisuke et al.||BART Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion by Rac1 Inactivation through Direct Binding to Active Rac1||Neoplasia||2012|
|Gaus, Kristin et al.||Destabilization of YopE by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway fine-tunes yop delivery into host cells and facilitates systemic spread of Yersinia enterocolitica in host lymphoid tissue||Infection and Immunity||2011||ISSN 0019-9567|
|Zhang, Ning et al.||A novel testis-specific GTPase serves as a link to proteasome biogenesis: Functional characterization of RhoS/RSA-14-44 in spermatogenesis||Molecular Biology of the Cell||2010||ISSN 1059-1524|
|Songsungthong, Warangkhana et al.||ROS-inhibitory activity of YopE is required for full virulence of Yersinia in mice||Cellular Microbiology||2010||ISSN 1462-5814|
|Köhli, Michael et al.||The fuction of two closely related Rho proteins is determined by an atypical switch I region||Journal of Cell Science||2008||ISSN 0021-9533|
|Vogt, D. L. et al.||ARHGAP4 is a novel RhoGAP that mediates inhibition of cell motility and axon outgrowth||Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience||2007||ISSN 1044-7431|
|Rothenfluh, Adrian et al.||Distinct Behavioral Responses to Ethanol Are Regulated by Alternate RhoGAP18B Isoforms||Cell||2006||ISSN 0092-8674|
Question 1: How should I prepare my protein for testing in the GAP assay?
Answer 1: All protein samples and buffers must be free of phosphate prior to beginning the RhoGAP assay biochem kit (Cat. # BK105). If your protein is in PBS buffer then it must be dialyzed twice in 1000 volumes of 50 mM PIPES pH 7.0 or 50 mM Tris pH 7.5 buffer to reduce the phosphate content to non-detectable levels. For the assay itself, prepare an 8X concentration of protein or compound in 20 mM Hepes buffer pH 7.4 or similar or for compounds with low solubility in water, use Milli-Q water and 10% DMSO. We recommend a final concentration of 30 μM-100 μM for compound screening, or 10 to 1000 nM for proteins. A titration of your compound/protein is recommended when performing the GAP assay.
Question 2: Can I test cell or tissue lysates with the RhoGAP assay kit to screen for GAP proteins?
Answer 2: No, we do not recommend using lysates from cells or tissue samples with the RhoGAP assay kit (Cat. # BK105). In lysates there are too many complicating factors for a sensitive and accurate measurement of GAP activity. Instead, we recommend using a purified compound or protein that has been isolated with immunoprecipitation or purified by His-tagged chromatography.
Question 3: Does the RhoGAP protein work with Ras GTPase?
Answer 3: The Ras GTPase is not a good substrate for the p50 RhoGAP protein that is included with the RhoGAP assay kit (Cat. # BK105). We provide the Ras protein as a substrate to screen any potential Ras GAPs that you may wish to study. Please see these papers for characterization of RhoGAP and its lack of effect on Ras.
Garrett, M. D., Self, A. J., van Oers, C., and Hall, A . (1989) J. Biol. Chem. v 264, pp. 10-13.
Garrett, M. D., Major, G. N., Totty, N., and Hall, A. (1991) Biochem. J. v 276, pp. 833-336.
Lancaster, C. A., Taylor-Harris, P. M., Self, A. J., Brill, S., van Erp, H.E., and Hall, A. (1994) J. Biol Chem. v 269, pp. 1137-1142.
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