Rhodamine Phalloidin

Rhodamine Phalloidin

Product Uses Include

  • Stain F-actin in fixed cells
  • Stabilize actin filaments in vitro
  • Visualize actin filaments in vitro

Phalloidin's usefulness as a laboratory tool is well established and lies in it's ability to inhibit microfilament de-polymerization. Thus, phalloidin stabilized microfilaments are used as substrates for the identification and characterization of the ever increasing number of microfilament associated proteins. In addition, rhodamine phalloidin can be used for staining the actin cytoskeleton in cells, and also as a fluorescent marker/stabilizer for microfilaments used in motility assays.

The rhodamine phalloidin is provided as a lyophilized powder. When reconstituted with 500 µl methanol, it is at 14 µM (200 x stock).

In keeping with our policy of providing only the highest quality products, we are now pleased to inform you that Cytoskeleton is offering rhodamine phalloidin at a chromatographic purity of >99%. This is the purest phalloidin commercially available for research use.

Biological Activity
We have determined that the microfilament stabilizing property of our product is equal or superior to any other commercially available phalloidins. Microfilaments in 70 nM phalloidin are stable at room temperature for over one week.


Figure 1. A Swiss 3T3 fibroblast stained with rhodamine phalloidin (PHDR1). The phalloidin binds specifically to F-actin and does therefore stain the actin stress fibers in the cell

For product Datasheets and MSDSs please click on the PDF links below.   For additional information, click on the FAQs tab above or contact our Technical Support department at tservice@cytoskeleton.com

AuthorTitleJournalYearArticle Link
Danielsson, Brooke E. et al.Progerin-expressing endothelial cells are unable to adapt to shear stressBiophysical Journal2022ISSN 1542-0086
Wu, Yueh-Fu O. et al.The CLIP-170 N-terminal domain binds directly to both F-actin and microtubules in a mutually exclusive mannerJournal of Biological Chemistry2022ISSN 0021-9258
Owen, Leanna M. et al.The C-terminal actin-binding domain of talin forms an asymmetric catch bond with F-actinProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2022ISSN 1091-6490
Lan, C et al.Forkhead Domain Inhibitor-6 Suppresses Corneal Neovascularization and Subsequent Fibrosis After Alkali Burn in Rats… \& Visual Science2022Article Link
Vdovenko, Daria et al. Microvesicles released from activated CD4 + T cells alter microvascular endothelial cell function European Journal of Clinical Investigation2022ISSN 0014--2972
He, Jianxiang et al.Osteogenesis‐Inducing Chemical Cues Enhance the Mechanosensitivity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Osteogenic Differentiation on a Microtopographically Patterned SurfaceAdvanced Science2022ISSN 2198--3844
Bahl, Sonali et al.EGFR phosphorylates HDAC1 to regulate its expression and anti-apoptotic functionCell Death and Disease2021ISSN 2041-4889
Xing, Qianqian et al.Scavenger receptor MARCO contributes to macrophage phagocytosis and clearance of tumor cellsExperimental Cell Research2021ISSN 1090-2422
Hsia, Hung En et al.Endoglycan (PODXL2) is proteolytically processed by ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10) and controls neurite branching in primary neuronsFASEB Journal2021ISSN 1530-6860
Lin, Lin et al.Phase separation-mediated condensation of Whirlin-Myo15-Eps8 stereocilia tip complexCell Reports2021ISSN 2211-1247
Cajulao, Jan Mikhale et al.Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces the cytotoxic effects of group B streptococcus on HeLa cellsMicrobial Pathogenesis2021ISSN 1096-1208
Logsdon, Deirdre M. et al.Evaluation of the TMRW vapor phase cryostorage platform using reproductive specimens and in vitro extended human embryo cultureF&S Science2021
Wang, Yan et al.FSH directly regulates chondrocyte dedifferentiation and cartilage developmentJournal of Endocrinology2021ISSN 1479-6805
Appleton, Kathryn M. et al.Inhibition of the myocardin-related transcription factor pathway increases efficacy of trametinib in nras-mutant melanoma cell linesCancers2021ISSN 2072-6694
Miao, Chunhui et al.An infection-induced RhoB-Beclin 1-Hsp90 complex enhances clearance of uropathogenic Escherichia coliNature Communications2021ISSN 2041-1723
Pastar, Irena et al.Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus triggers pyroptosis and contributes to inhibition of healing due to perforin-2 suppressionJournal of Clinical Investigation2021ISSN 1558-8238
Xiang, Changpei et al.Yixin-Shu Capsules Ameliorated Ischemia-Induced Heart Failure by Restoring Trx2 and Inhibiting JNK/p38 ActivationOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity2021ISSN 1942-0994
Wu, Wenyu et al.Interferon-Induced Macrophage-Derived Exosomes Mediate Antiviral Activity against Hepatitis B Virus through miR-574-5pJournal of Infectious Diseases2021ISSN 1537-6613
Zhao, Fengyuan et al.Comparison of three different acidic solutions in tendon decellularized extracellular matrix bio-ink fabrication for 3D cell printingActa Biomaterialia2021
Lee, Geonhui et al.Cell-ECM contact-guided intracellular polarization is mediated via lamin A/C dependent nucleus-cytoskeletal connectionBiomaterials2021
Hu, Ke et al.Dual anisotropicity comprising 3D printed structures and magnetic nanoparticle assemblies: towards the promotion of mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiationNPG Asia Materials 2021 13:12021ISSN 1884--4057
Stoecklein, Katy S. et al.Improved cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos using FGF2, LIF, and IGF1PLOS ONE2021ISSN 1932--6203
Fukusumi, Yoshiyasu et al.Nephrin–Ephrin-B1–Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 2–Ezrin–Actin Axis Is Critical in Podocyte InjuryThe American Journal of Pathology2021
Zerboni, Alessandra et al.Cellular mechanisms involved in the combined toxic effects of diesel exhaust and metal oxide nanoparticlesNanomaterials2021ISSN 2079-4991
Cenariu, Diana et al.Hsa-miR-125b Therapeutic Role in Colon Cancer Is Dependent on the Mutation Status of the TP53 GenePharmaceutics2021ISSN 1999--4923
Marchetti, Sara et al.Combustion-derived particles from biomass sources differently promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition on A549 cellsArchives of toxicology2021ISSN 1432--0738
Bakshi, Mariam et al.Ostertagia ostertagi mediates early host immune responses via macrophage and toll-like receptor pathwaysInfection and Immunity2021ISSN 1098-5522
Ihn, Hye Jung et al.PF-3845, a Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor, Directly Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis through ERK and NF-κB Pathways In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Loss In VivoInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences2021ISSN 1422-0067
Nishimura, Yushi et al.Wide-field fluorescent nanodiamond spin measurements toward real-time large-area intracellular thermometryScientific Reports 2021 11:12021ISSN 2045--2322
Nishiguchi, Koji M. et al.A hypomorphic variant in EYS detected by genome-wide association study contributes toward retinitis pigmentosaCommunications Biology 2021 4:12021ISSN 2399--3642
Jozic, Ivan et al.Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of caveolin-1 disrupts cytoskeletal organization, inhibits cell migration and re-epithelialization of non-healing woundsCommunications Biology2021ISSN 2399-3642
Huang, Yan Bing et al.Inhibition of TGF-β2-induced migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ARPE-19 by sulforaphaneInternational Journal of Ophthalmology2021ISSN 2227-4898
Zhou, Xuefeng et al.Ca ions chelation, collagen I incorporation and 3D bionic PLGA/PCL electrospun architecture to enhance osteogenic differentiationMaterials & Design2021
Duan, Xing et al.Dynamic organelle distribution initiates actin-based spindle migration in mouse oocytesNature Communications2020ISSN 2041-1723
Lu, Fanqing et al.SILAC-based proteomic profiling of the suppression of TGF-β1-induced lung fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation by trehaloseToxicology and applied pharmacology2020ISSN 1096--0333
Adamik, Juraj et al.EZH2 Supports Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption Via Epigenetic and Cytoplasmic TargetsJournal of Bone and Mineral Research2020ISSN 1523-4681
Chen, Huan et al.Disruption of Cav1.2-mediated signaling is a pathway for ketamine-induced pathologyNature Communications2020ISSN 2041-1723
Osaki, Tatsuya et al.On-chip 3D neuromuscular model for drug screening and precision medicine in neuromuscular diseaseNature Protocols2020ISSN 1750-2799
Danielsson, Brooke E. et al.Lamin microaggregates lead to altered mechanotransmission in progerin-expressing cellsNucleus2020ISSN 1949-1042
Kumar, Sathish Sundar Dhilip et al.Selective laser efficiency of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles by aloe arborescens and its wound healing activities in normal wounded and diabetic wounded fibroblast cells: In vitro studiesInternational Journal of Nanomedicine2020ISSN 1178-2013
Lai, Yingzhen et al.Biofunctionalization of Microgroove Surfaces with Antibacterial NanocoatingsBioMed Research International2020ISSN 2314-6141
Venard, Claire M. et al.Cilium axoneme internalization and degradation in chytrid fungiCytoskeleton2020ISSN 1949-3592
Yang, Shuhui et al.Self-assembling peptide hydrogels functionalized with LN- And BDNF- mimicking epitopes synergistically enhance peripheral nerve regenerationTheranostics2020ISSN 1838-7640
Zhu, Jinjin et al.Bioactive poly (methyl methacrylate) bone cement for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracturesTheranostics2020ISSN 1838-7640
Rodríguez-Fdez, Sonia et al.Lysine Acetylation Reshapes the Downstream Signaling Landscape of Vav1 in LymphocytesCells2020ISSN 2073-4409
Iioka, Hidekazu et al.Crumbs3 is a critical factor that regulates invasion and metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma via the specific interaction with FGFR1International Journal of Cancer2019ISSN 1097-0215
Lin, Juo Han et al.Small G protein signalling modulator 2 (SGSM2) is involved in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer metastasis through enhancement of migratory cell adhesion via interaction with E-cadherinCell Adhesion and Migration2019ISSN 1933-6926
Morikura, Takashi et al.Effect of mechanical compression on invasion process of malignant melanoma using in vitro three-dimensional cell culture deviceMicromachines2019ISSN 2072-666X
Hernández-Albors, Alejandro et al.Microphysiological sensing platform for an in-situ detection of tissue-secreted cytokinesBiosensors and Bioelectronics: X2019ISSN 2590-1370
Li, Qingyuan et al.RUNX1 promotes tumour metastasis by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and EMT in colorectal cancerJournal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research2019ISSN 1756-9966
Huang, Yuxing et al.Arp2/3-branched actin maintains an active pool of GTP-RhoA and controls RhoA abundanceCells2019ISSN 2073-4409
Guo, Yifan et al.A biodegradable functional water-responsive shape memory polymer for biomedical applicationsJournal of Materials Chemistry B2019ISSN 2050-750X
Li, Tao et al.Resveratrol alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury‑induced mitochondrial oxidative stress in cardiomyocytesMolecular Medicine Reports2019ISSN 1791-3004
Wang, Di et al.Knockdown of cytokeratin 8 overcomes chemoresistance of chordoma cells by aggravating endoplasmic reticulum stress through PERK/eIF2α arm of unfolded protein response and blocking autophagyCell Death and Disease2019ISSN 2041-4889
Ma, Hongxin et al.Myricetin inhibits migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cell line by inhibiting the EMT processOncology Letters2019ISSN 1792-1082
Cavalcanti, José Henrique de Lima et al.In vitro assessment of the functional dynamics of titanium with surface coating of hydroxyapatite nanoparticlesMaterials2019
Tan, Xinyu et al.Clathrin-mediated endocytosis regulates fMLP-mediated neutrophil polarizationHeliyon2018ISSN 2405-8440
Sfriso, Riccardo et al.3D artificial round section micro-vessels to investigate endothelial cells under physiological flow conditionsScientific Reports2018ISSN 2045-2322
Hu, Shuhong et al.Semaphorin 7A Promotes VEGFA/VEGFR2-Mediated Angiogenesis and Intraplaque Neovascularization in ApoE-/- MiceFrontiers in Physiology2018ISSN 1664-042X
Wang, Shuyang et al.FOXF1 Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis by Transcriptionally Activating SNAI1Neoplasia (United States)2018ISSN 1476-5586
He, Yingcong et al.Modifying collagen with alendronate sodium for bone regeneration applicationsRSC Advances2018ISSN 2046-2069
Omer, Safia et al.Cortical dynein pulling mechanism is regulated by differentially targeted attachment molecule num1eLife2018ISSN 2050-084X
Gu, Weihong et al.Highly Dispersed Fullerenols Hamper Osteoclast Ruffled Border Formation by Perturbing Ca2+ BundlesSmall2018ISSN 1613-6829
Kuo, Hsi Kung et al.Evaluation of the Effect of Everolimus on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells and Experimental Proliferative VitreoretinopathyCurrent Eye Research2018ISSN 1460-2202
Niu, Xiuran et al.Macropinocytosis activated by oncogenic Dbl enables specific targeted delivery of tat/pDNA nano-complexes into ovarian cancer cellsInternational Journal of Nanomedicine2018ISSN 1178-2013
Caggia, Silvia et al.Novel role of Giα2 in cell migration: Downstream of PI3-kinase–AKT and Rac1 in prostate cancer cellsJournal of Cellular Physiology2018ISSN 1097-4652
Pena-Philippides, Juan Carlos et al.Inhibition of microRNA-155 supports endothelial tight junction integrity following oxygen-glucose deprivationJournal of the American Heart Association2018ISSN 2047-9980
Cetera, Maureen et al.Counter-rotational cell flows drive morphological and cell fate asymmetries in mammalian hair folliclesNature Cell Biology2018ISSN 1476-4679
Wang, Yue et al.Specific Eph receptor-cytoplasmic effector signaling mediated by SAM–SAM domain interactionseLife2018ISSN 2050-084X
Liang, Fengyi et al.Juxtanodin in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Expression and biological activities in regulating cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organizationJournal of Comparative Neurology2018ISSN 1096--9861
Zhang, Jingjing et al.Screening and identification of critical transcription factors involved in the protection of cardiomyocytes against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage by Yixin-shuScientific Reports2017ISSN 2045-2322
Long, Kimberly R. et al.Proximal tubule apical endocytosis is modulated by fluid shear stress via an mTOR-dependent pathwayMolecular Biology of the Cell2017ISSN 1939-4586
Zhang, Jingjing et al.An integrated approach to identify critical transcription factors in the protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress by Danhong injectionFree Radical Biology and Medicine2017ISSN 1873-4596
Chen, Ying Da et al.Exophagy of annexin A2 via RAB11, RAB8A and RAB27A in IFN-γ-stimulated lung epithelial cellsScientific Reports2017ISSN 2045-2322
Ridge, Liam A. et al.Non-muscle myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for epicardial function and coronary vessel formation during mammalian developmentPLoS Genetics2017ISSN 1553-7404
Murphy-Marshman, Hannah et al.Antioxidants and NOX1/NOX4 inhibition blocks TGFβ1-induced CCN2 and α-SMA expression in dermal and gingival fibroblastsPLoS ONE2017ISSN 1932-6203
Mehedi, Masfique et al.Multicolor Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy to Generate High-resolution Images of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Particles and Infected CellsBio-Protocol2017ISSN 2331--8325
Zhang, Ying et al.Effects of testosterone on the expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α in mouse granulosa cellsExperimental and Therapeutic Medicine2016ISSN 1792-1015
Nader, Guilherme P.F. et al.FAK, talin and PIPKI 3 regulate endocytosed integrin activation to polarize focal adhesion assemblyNature Cell Biology2016ISSN 1476-4679
Tan, Li Xuan et al.Protective responses to sublytic complement in the retinal pigment epitheliumProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2016ISSN 1091-6490
Liu, Ming et al.Nitidine chloride inhibits the malignant behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathwayOncology Reports2016ISSN 1791-2431
Zhang, Jingjing et al.Physically entrapped gelatin in polyethylene glycol scaffolds for three-dimensional chondrocyte cultureJournal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers2016ISSN 1530-8030
Wang, Dan et al.Complementary expression of optomotor-blind and the Iroquois complex promotes fold formation to separate wing notum and hinge territoriesDevelopmental Biology2016ISSN 1095-564X
Wang, Jiwei et al.Berberine induces autophagy in glioblastoma by targeting the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-pathwayOncotarget2016ISSN 1949-2553
Hasegawa, Junya et al. Autophagosome–lysosome fusion in neurons requires INPP 5E, a protein associated with Joubert syndrome The EMBO Journal2016ISSN 0261--4189
Zhang, Chao et al.NRF2 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by increasing RhoA/ROCK pathway signal transductionOncotarget2016ISSN 1949-2553
Boubakri, Meriam et al.Loss of ift122, a Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) complex component, leads to slow, progressive photoreceptor degeneration due to inefficient opsin transportJournal of Biological Chemistry2016ISSN 1083-351X
Li, Qing et al.Investigations into the biocompatibility of nanohydroxyapatite coated magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic situationJournal of Nanomaterials2015ISSN 1687-4129
Yuan, Yun et al.Scutellarin regulates the Notch pathway and affects the migration and morphological transformation of activated microglia in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in rats and in activated BV-2 microgliaJournal of Neuroinflammation2015ISSN 1742-2094
Toops, Kimberly A. et al.Cholesterol-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase disrupts autophagy in the retinal pigment epitheliumMolecular Biology of the Cell2015ISSN 1939-4586
Tang, Zhongyuan et al.Inhibition of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B via small-interfering RNA or 3-methyladenine impairs hypoxia-induced HO8910PM and HO8910 epithelial ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion and is associated with RhoA and alterations of theOncology Reports2015ISSN 1791-2431
Larabee, Shannon M. et al.MiRNA-17 members that target Bmpr2 influence signaling mechanisms important for embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro and gastrulation in embryosStem Cells and Development2015ISSN 1557-8534
Neufurth, Meik et al.Modular small diameter vascular grafts with bioactive functionalitiesPLoS ONE2015ISSN 1932-6203
Jadhav, Shweta P. et al.MicroRNA-200b modulates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via the cJun/MAPK pathwayJournal of Neurochemistry2014ISSN 1471-4159
Kumeta, Masahiro et al.Caprice/MISP is a novel F-actin bundling protein critical for actin-based cytoskeletal reorganizationsGenes to Cells2014ISSN 1365-2443
Jang, Sang Min et al.Sox4-mediated caldesmon expression facilitates differentiation of skeletal myoblastsJournal of Cell Science2013ISSN 0021-9533
Cheng, Xiwen et al.Correction: Microarray analyses of glucocorticoid and vitamin D3 target genes in differentiating cultured human podocytes (PLoS ONE)PLoS ONE2013ISSN 1932-6203
Teplova, Irina et al.ATG proteins mediate efferocytosis and suppress inflammation in mammary involutionAutophagy2013ISSN 1554-8635
Beriault, Daniel R. et al.The mechanical behavior of mutant K14-R125P keratin bundles and networks in NEB-1 keratinocytesPLoS ONE2012ISSN 1932-6203
Gao, Chengzhuo et al.Histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) regulates myocyte migration and differentiationBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research2010ISSN 0167-4889

Question 1:  Can I use fluorescently-labeled phalloidin to stain F-actin in living cells?

Answer 1:  Unfortunately, no, phalloidin cannot be used to stain F-actin in living cells.  Phalloidins are used to stain F-actin in fixed cells.  Fluorescent phalloidins only bind to the native quaternary structure of F-actin which provides a low background.  The correct fixation condition for phalloidin binding is 3.7% (v/v) paraformaldehyde in PBS for 10 min because it retains the quaternary protein structure which is necessary for high affinity binding of phalloidin.  Methanol fixation destroys the native conformation and hence is not suitable for F-actin staining with phalloidin.  To monitor actin dynamics in living cells, micro-injection of rhodamine-labeled actin (Cat. # APHR or AR05) is recommended.  Please see those datasheets for more information.


Question 2:  Which of the fluorescently-labeled phalloidin is the most stable/brightest?

Answer 2:  The brightest and most stable of the Acti-stains is Acti-stain 488 (green fluorescence; Cat. # PHDG1).  Please see the table below for additional information on all of our Acti-stains. 


Cat. #

Wavelengths (Ex/EM)

Brightness (AFU)

Stability to photobleaching* (1/2 life in sec)

Background (% of total AFU at 100 nM)

Acti-stain™ 488






Acti-stain™ 535






Acti-stain™ 555






Acti-stain™ 670






* = measured in the absence of antifade.


If you have any questions concerning this product, please contact our Technical Service department at tservice@cytoskeleton.com.