The Ras superfamily of small GTPases consists of more than 150 members such as Rho, Ras, Ran, Rab, and Arf. Small GTPases serve as binary switches cycling between GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active states and have been shown to regulate biological processes including cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell movement. Dysfunction of small G-proteins has been identified in several diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders.
Cytoskeleton, Inc. has a wide assortment of Small G-protein tools and reagents including our trusted and highly cited Activation Assays. We've created a simple explanation video, as well as newsletters and citation spotlights to provide insight about these critical regulatory proteins and the helpful tools used to investigate them. If you have any questions about a particular product or toolkit please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Learn More About These Regulatory Small-G Proteins
Our most recent Small G-Protein writings can be found below. However Cytoskeleton has been writing about Small G-Proteins for years, and that library of information can be found here
Oncogenic RAS drives cells to the cancerous state through a wide range of mechanisms, including: the establishment of cancer cell plasticity (1), enhancement of cell migration and metastasis (2) and metabolic reprogramming towards anabolic metabolism (3). This Newsletter focuses on the emerging area of RAS driven oncogenesis via the evasion of host immune attack. Cancerous cells are visible to the host immune system through chronic stress signals and tumor associated antigen presentation and are therefore susceptible to being cleared from the host via immunogenic mechanisms. Many RAS driven cancers have a high mutational burden and should be good targets for immune clearance, however, oncogenic RAS has evolved mechanisms to suppress the immune response and promote tumor growth. A brief overview of the major mechanisms is summarized in the newsletter.
Autism, clinically known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a heritable and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms that include difficulties with social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior(1). ASD is thought to be quite common with a prevalence approaching 1% in the worldwide population; additionally, due to its broad disease spectrum and sometimes ambiguous symptoms, it is likely that many people go undiagnosed. Defining the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for ASD has been elusive, and currently no single gene mutation accounts for more than 1% of ASD cases. In support of this, a recent study, which investigated more than 35,000 human samples by whole exosome sequencing, identified 102 high-risk genes of which 53 were strongly associated with ASD(2).
Small G-Protein Tools In Action - Citation Spotlights
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) oscillate between a differentiated (contractile) and a de-differentiated (synthetic) phenotype. In a healthy, mature vessel these VSMCs exist in a differentiated phenotype that comprises the portion of the vessel that contracts to help transport oxygenated blood; conversely, in response to injury, VSMCs can de-differentiate into a synthetic phenotype where they become proliferative and contribute to wound healing. In a recent study by Talwar et al., the group discovered that VSMCs, under selective ECM conditions, can also exist in a null state and can be driven towards the conventional differentiated or de-differentiated phenotypes in response to Rac and Rho signaling. The group used a combination of mathematical and computational modeling to identify a null VSMC phenotype. They then utilized single cell experimental validation approaches ...
Metastasis is a fundamental hallmark of cancer and the most closely aligned with poor prognosis. The mechanisms that regulate metastasis; in particular, the cancer cell’s ability to communicate with the tumor microenvironment to colonize at distinct, distal organ sites remain an intense area of investigation. Recent studies suggest both soluble molecules as well as extracellular vesicles (EV) can play important roles towards seeding the pre-metastatic niche and creating a favorable tumor microenvironment for metastatic cancer cells. Preliminary work by Hyenne et al. identified Ral A/B as a participant in EV secretion in aggressive 4T1 mammary tumor cells; however, whether these EVs play a role in metastasis remained unknown. In this recent study, Ghoroghi et. al. identified Ral A/B as critical regulator of metastasis through control of exosome secretion and biogenesis.
Please visit our product pages for product specific citations - some go back to 1993
RhoA Activation Assay - Rac1 Activation Assay - Ras Activation Assay
Below are Brochures on the Small G-Protein and Activation Assay Tools
Small G-Protein Tools Brochure
Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a large selection of highly pure and biologically active actin proteins, actin binding proteins, antibodies, buffers and research Biochem Kits™. Our Actin Biochem Kits allow researchers easy access to some of the most powerful in vivo and in vitro assays employed in the field.
Cytoskeleton's Small G-protein Activation Assays measure the GTP-bound form of the protein from a cell or tissue extract and are the most trusted and cited activation assays available. Activation assays are available in two formats: the traditional pull-down bead format and our advanced ELISA based G-LISA format.
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