HiLyte Fluor™ 647labeled microtubules formed from HiLyte Fluor™ 647 labeled tubulin.
Product Uses Include
Porcine brain tubulin (>99% pure, see Cat. # T240) has been modified to contain covalently linked HiLyte Fluor™ 647 (HiLyte Fluor is a trademark of Anaspec Inc, CA) at random surface lysines. An activated ester of HiLyte Fluor™ 647 was used to label the protein. Labeling stoichiometry was determined by spectroscopic measurement of protein and dye concentrations (dye extinction coefficient when protein bound is 250,000M-1cm-1). Final labeling stoichiometry is 0.2 to 0.7 dyes per tubulin heterodimer. HiLyte Fluor™ 647 labeled tubulin can be detected using a filter set of 600-630 nm excitation and 660-680 emission. HiLyte Fluor™ 647 tubulin is in a versatile, stable and easily shipped format. It is ready for micro-injection or in vitro polymerization. Cytoskeleton, Inc. also offers AMCA (Cat. # TL440M), HiLyte Fluor™ 488 (Cat. # TL488M), rhodamine (Cat. # TL590M), X-rhodamine (Cat. # TL620M) labeled tubulins.
The protein purity of the tubulin used for labeling is determined by scanning densitometry of Coomassie Blue stained protein on a 4-20% polyacrylamide gel. The protein used for TL670M is >99% pure tubulin (Figure 1 A). Labeled protein is run on an SDS gel and photographed under UV light. Any unincorporated HiLyte Fluor™ 670 dye would be visible in the dye front. No fluorescence is detected in the dye front, indicating that no free dye is present in the final product (Figure 1 B).
Figure 1: HiLyte Fluor™ 647 tubulin protein purity determination. A 50 µg sample of unlabeled tubulin protein was separated by electrophoresis in a 4-20% SDS-PAGE system and stained with Coomassie Blue (A). Protein quantitation was performed using the Precision Red Protein Assay Reagent (Cat. # ADV02). 20 µg of the same protein sample was run in a 4-20% SDS-PAGE system and photographed directly under 525-625nm illumination (B).
The biological activity of HiLyte Fluor™ 647 tubulin is assessed by a tubulin polymerization assay. To pass quality control, a 5 mg/ml solution of HiLyte Fluor™ 647 labeled tubulin in G-PEM plus 5% glycerol must polymerize to >85%. This is comparable to unlabeled tubulin under identical conditions.
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|Aher, Amol et al.||CLASP Mediates Microtubule Repair by Restricting Lattice Damage and Regulating Tubulin Incorporation||Current Biology||2020||ISSN 1879-0445|
|Zehr, Elena A. et al.||Katanin Grips the β-Tubulin Tail through an Electropositive Double Spiral to Sever Microtubules||Developmental Cell||2020||ISSN 1878-1551|
|Diwaker, Drishya et al.||Deletion of the Pseudorabies virus gE/gI-US9p complex disrupts kinesin KIF1A and KIF5C recruitment during egress, and alters the properties of microtubule-dependent transport in vitro||PLoS Pathogens||2020||ISSN 1553-7374|
|von Appen, Alexander et al.||LEM2 phase separation promotes ESCRT-mediated nuclear envelope reformation||Nature||2020||ISSN 1476-4687|
|Farhadi, Leila et al.||Actin and microtubule crosslinkers tune mobility and control co-localization in a composite cytoskeletal network||Soft Matter||2020||ISSN 1744-6848|
|Rodríguez-García, Ruddi et al.||Mechanisms of Motor-Independent Membrane Remodeling Driven by Dynamic Microtubules||Current Biology||2020||ISSN 1879-0445|
|Li, Feiran et al.||Local direction change of surface gliding microtubules||Biotechnology and Bioengineering||2019||ISSN 1097-0290|
|Jiang, Shuo et al.||Interplay between the Kinesin and Tubulin Mechanochemical Cycles Underlies Microtubule Tip Tracking by the Non-motile Ciliary Kinesin Kif7||Developmental Cell||2019||ISSN 1878-1551|
|Siddiqui, Nida et al.||PTPN21 and Hook3 relieve KIF1C autoinhibition and activate intracellular transport||Nature Communications||2019||ISSN 2041-1723|
|Nakos, Konstantinos et al.||Septin 2/6/7 complexes tune microtubule plus-end growth and EB1 binding in a concentration- And filament-dependent manner||Molecular Biology of the Cell||2019||ISSN 1939-4586|
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Question 1: Can HiLyte Fluor™ 647-labeled tubulin (Cat. # TL670M) be used to monitor tubulin dynamics in living cells?
Answer 1: Yes, all of Cytoskeleton’s fluorescently-labeled tubulins, including TRITC rhodamine-tubulin can be micro-injected into cells to study tubulin localization and dynamics in living cells. Please see the brief protocol on the product datasheet (Cat. # TL670M and these papers for guidance on micro-injecting cells with fluorescently-labeled proteins (Smilenov et al., 1999. Focal adhesion motility revealed in stationary fibroblasts. Science. 286, 1172-1174; Lopez-Lluch et al., 2001. Protein kinase C-d C2-like domain is a binding site for actin and enables actin redistribution in neutrophils. Biochem. J. 357, 39-47; Lim and Danuser, 2009. Live cell imaging of F-actin dynamics via fluorescent speckle microscopy (FSM). J. Vis. Exp. 30, e1325, DOI: 10.3791/1325;
Question 2: What is the best way to store HiLyte Fluor™ 647-labeled tubulin to maintain high activity?
Answer 2: The recommended storage condition for the lyophilized tubulin product is 4°C in the dark with desiccant to maintain humidity at <10%. Under these conditions the protein is stable for 6 months. Lyophilized protein can also be stored desiccated at -70°C where it will be stable for 6 months. However, at -70°C the rubber seal in the lid of the tube could crack and allow in moisture. Therefore we recommend storing at 4°C. If stored at -70°C, it is imperative to include desiccant with the lyophilized protein if this storage condition is utilized. After reconstituting the protein as directed, the concentrated protein in G-PEM buffer should be aliquoted, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70°C (stable for 6 months). NOTE: It is very important to snap freeze the tubulin in liquid nitrogen as other methods of freezing will result in significantly reduced activity. Defrost rapidly by placing in a room temperature water bath for 1 min. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
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