This Rac1 G-LISA™ is a colorimetric based assay and shares the many advantages that all G-LISA™ activation assay have. This assay is specific for Rac1.
The Rac1 G-LISA™ kit contains a Rac-GTP-binding protein linked to the wells of a 96 well plate. Active GTP-bound Rac1 is captured by this protein while inactive GDP-bound Rac1 is removed following washes. The active Rac1 bound to the wells is detected with a Rac1 specific antibody. The degree of Rac1 activation is determined by comparing readings from activated cell lysates versus non-activated cell lysates.
Figure 1.The simple procedure of the Rac1 G-LISA™ assay.
Kit Contents - Enough reagents for 96 assays (Stripwell)
Figure 2. Rac1 activation by EGF measured by G-LISA™. Swiss 3T3 cells were serum starved (SS) for 48 h and treated with EGF (10 ng/ml for 2 min). 12.5 μg and 25 μg of cell lysates were subjected to the G-LISA™ assay. Absorbance was read at 490 nm.
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|Haq, Naila et al.||Loss of Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins causes synaptic aberrations in principal neurons||PLoS Biology||2019||ISSN 1545-7885|
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|Gokoffski, Kimberly K. et al.||Physiologic electrical fields direct retinal ganglion cell axon growth in vitro||Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science||2019||ISSN 1552-5783|
|Soni, Upendra Kumar et al.||A high level of TGF-B1 promotes endometriosis development via cell migration, adhesiveness, colonization, and invasiveness||Biology of Reproduction||2019||ISSN 1529-7268|
|Wang, Baomei et al.||Macrophage β2-Integrins Regulate IL-22 by ILC3s and Protect from Lethal Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis||Cell Reports||2019||ISSN 2211-1247|
|De Bessa, Tiphany Coralie et al.||Subverted regulation of Nox1 NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidant generation by protein disulfide isomerase A1 in colon carcinoma cells with overactivated KRas||Cell Death and Disease||2019||ISSN 2041-4889|
|Laufer, Julia M. et al.||Chemokine Receptor CCR7 Triggers an Endomembrane Signaling Complex for Spatial Rac Activation||Cell Reports||2019||ISSN 2211-1247|
|Shi, Wei et al.||EPHB6 controls catecholamine biosynthesis by up-regulating tyrosine hydroxylase transcription in adrenal gland chromaffin cells||Journal of Biological Chemistry||2019||ISSN 1083-351X|
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|Stierwalt, Harrison D. et al.||Insulin-stimulated Rac1-GTP binding is not impaired by palmitate treatment in L6 myotubes||Physiological Reports||2018||ISSN 2051-817X|
|Proto, Jonathan D. et al.||Regulatory T Cells Promote Macrophage Efferocytosis during Inflammation Resolution||Immunity||2018||ISSN 1097-4180|
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|Mayer, Louisa et al.||Nbeal2 interacts with Dock7, Sec16a, and Vac14||Blood||2018||ISSN 1528-0020|
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|Peretti, Amanda S. et al.||The R-Enantiomer of Ketorolac Delays Mammary Tumor Development in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Polyoma Middle T Antigen (MMTV-PyMT) Mice||American Journal of Pathology||2018||ISSN 1525-2191|
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|Caggia, Silvia et al.||Novel role of Giα2 in cell migration: Downstream of PI3-kinase–AKT and Rac1 in prostate cancer cells||Journal of Cellular Physiology||2018||ISSN 1097-4652|
|Dyberg, Cecilia et al.||Rho-associated kinase is a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America||2017||ISSN 1091-6490|
|Hendricks, Louie et al.||Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII–derived peptide MSP68 is a cytoskeletal immunomodulator of neutrophils that inhibits Rac1||Journal of Surgical Research||2017||ISSN 1095-8673|
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|Kumar, Vijay et al.||Integrin beta8 (ITGB8) activates VAV-RAC1 signaling via FAK in the acquisition of endometrial epithelial cell receptivity for blastocyst implantation||Scientific Reports||2017||ISSN 2045-2322|
|Ubba, Vaibhave et al.||RHOG-DOCK1-RAC1 Signaling Axis Is Perturbed in DHEA-Induced Polycystic Ovary in Rat Model||Reproductive Sciences||2017||ISSN 1933-7205|
|Gu, Changkyu et al.||Dynamin autonomously regulates podocyte focal adhesion maturation||Journal of the American Society of Nephrology||2017||ISSN 1533-3450|
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|Hamers, Anouk A.J. et al.||Nur77-deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages modulates inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix homeostasis, phagocytosis and tolerance||BMC Genomics||2016||ISSN 1471-2164|
|Valdez, Chris M. et al.||The Rac-GAP alpha2-chimaerin regulates hippocampal dendrite and spine morphogenesis||Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience||2016||ISSN 1095-9327|
|Lampi, Marsha C. et al.||Simvastatin ameliorates matrix stiffness-mediated endothelial monolayer disruption||PLoS ONE||2016||ISSN 1932-6203|
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Question 1: Can I detect isoforms other than RhoA, Rac1 or RalA with these G-LISA activation assays?
Answer 1: Yes, the RhoA G-LISA (Cat. # BK124), Rac1 G-LISA (Cat. # BK128) and RalA G-LISA (Cat. # BK129) can be used to detect RhoB or RhoC, Rac 2 or Rac3 or RalB, respectively. The capture proteins that the wells have been coated with bind all of the isoforms of the respective GTPase. The specificity of signal is conferred by the specificity of the monoclonal primary antibody utilized. Use of an isoform-specific monoclonal antibody allows detection of other Rho family isoforms. Please see this citation for an example of this modified procedure (Hall et al., 2008. Type I Collagen Receptor (α2β1) Signaling Promotes Prostate Cancer Invasion through RhoC GTPase. Neoplasia. 10, 797–803).
Basically the researcher would test their specific monoclonal antibody in a western blot first to prove specificity to the alternative isoform of interest. For example, load RhoA and C for negative controls when testing a RhoB monoclonal antibody. Then the researcher would use 1:50, 1:200 and 1:500 dilutions of their monoclonal antibody on duplicate cell extracts of activated and control state samples. The researcher would then choose the dilution of monoclonal antibody which gave them the highest ratio of activated:control state.
A simple activated/control state pair of extracts can be made by growing cells to 50% confluence in serum containing media, washing twice with PBS, preparing lysate and aliquoting and freezing samples in liquid nitrogen. With one aliquot, defrost and let stand at room temperature for 60 min to degrade the activated signal to a low basal signal, which will be the control state. The untreated sample (2nd aliquot) will be considered “activated” which most serum grown cells are.
Question 2: How many cell culture plates can I process at one time during the lysis step?
Answer 2: We recommend that from the point at you add lysis buffer to the plate on ice to aliquoting and snap-freezing the lysate samples in liquid nitrogen, no more than 10 min are allowed to elapse. After 10 min on ice, we find that GTP bound to GTPases (activated GTPases) undergoes rapid hydrolysis. Rapid processing at 4°C is essential for accurate and reproducible results. The following guidelines are useful for rapid lysis of cells.
a. Retrieve culture dish from incubator, immediately aspirate out all of the media and place firmly on ice.
b. Immediately rinse cells with an appropriate volume of ice cold PBS (for Cdc42 activation, skip this step and simply aspirate the media) to remove serum proteins.
c. Aspirate off all residual PBS buffer. This is essential so that the Lysis Buffer is not diluted. Correct aspiration requires that the culture dish is placed at a steep angle on ice for 1 min to allow excess PBS to collect in the vessel for complete removal. As noted, the time period between cell lysis and addition of lysates to the wells is critically important. Take the following precautions:
1. Work quickly.
2. Keeping solutions and lysates embedded in ice so that the temperature is below 4°C. This helps to minimize changes in signal over time.
3. We strongly recommend that cell lysates be immediately frozen after harvest and clarification. A sample of at least 20 μl should be kept on ice for protein concentration measurement. The lysates must be snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70°C. Lysates should be stored at -70°C for no longer than 30 days.
4. Thawing of cell lysates prior to use in the G-LISA assay should be in a room temperature water bath, followed by rapid transfer to ice and immediate use in the assay.
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