The Coronavirus superfamily (Coronaviridae) includes several human pathogens with large RNA-encoded genomes, e.g., influenza, common cold, and viral encephalitis, which are classified into alpha-, beta- and gamma-coronavirus families with further division into Lineages A, B, and C. COVID-19 is classed as a Lineage B beta-coronavirus with high similarity to SARS-CoV, thus it'-s recentl renaming to SARS-CoV-2 (1). Although the first members of the beta-coronavirus family were recorded in the 1960’s, the family’s rate of new virulent human pathogens has increased rapidly over the past 20 years, now numbering six in total with the latest ones having the familiar pseudonyms SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, 2002), HKU (HongKong, 2005), MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, 2012), and now COVID-19 / SARS-CoV-2. Their emergence is linked to increased density of human and animal populations which has enhanced zoonotic transmission rates (2).
Here, we describe the four stages of virus “life” cycle with respect to its interaction with the cytoskeleton.
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