Microtubule Associated Proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with tubulin and microtubules to regulate their function and also to transport cargo. The well known MAPs MAP1 & 2 and Tau are expressed in CNS material and help stabilize microtubule structures. Motor proteins can also be classified as MAPs but usually they are called kinesins or dyneins. Cytoskeleton provides a MAP preparation isolated from MAP rich tubulin which contains mainly MAP2 but also lower levels of MAP1, MAP4 and Tau. We also provide Tau protein from brain tissue which has four prevalent isoforms. Click on the datasheets below for more information.
Cytoskeleton's products have been cited hundreds of times over the past 18 years. A select few are described here, for more citations on individual products please use the "Citations" tab on each individual product page.
Microtubule associated protein rich fraction: bovine brain (Cat. # MAPF)
Cho, H. P., Liu, Y., Gomez, M., Dunlap, J., Tyers, M. and Wang, Y. (2005). The dual-specificity phosphatase CDC14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules. Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 4541-4551.
|Satish, L., Blair, H. C., Glading, A. and Wells, A. (2005). Interferon-inducible protein 9 (CXCL11)-induced cell motility in keratinocytes requires calcium flux-dependent activation of μ-calpain. Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 1922-1941.|
Teckchandani, A. M., Birukova, A. A., Tar, K., Verin, A. D. and Tsygankov, A. Y. (2005). The multidomain protooncogenic protein c-Cbl binds to tubulin and stabilizes microtubules. Exp. Cell Res. 306, 114-127.
|Mamoune, A., Luo, J. H., Lauffenburger, D. A. and Wells, A. (2003). Calpain-2 as a target for limiting prostate cancer invasion. Cancer Res. 63, 4632-4640.|
Nielsen, F. C., Nielsen, J., Kristensen, M. A., Koch, G. and Christiansen, J. (2002). Cytoplasmic trafficking of IGF-II mRNA-binding protein by conserved KH domains. J. Cell Sci. 115, 2087-2097.
Tau protein: bovine brain (Cat. # TA01)
Rouzier, R., Rajan, R., Wagner, P., Hess, K. R., Gold, D. L., Stec, J., Ayers, M., Ross, J. S., Zhang, P., Buchholz, T. A. et al. (2005). Microtubule-associated protein tau: A marker of paclitaxel sensitivity in breast cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 8315-8320.
|Roger, B., Al-Bassam, J., Dehmelt, L., Milligan, R. A. and Halpain, S. (2004). MAP2c, but not tau, binds and bundles F-actin via its microtubule binding domain. Curr. Biol. 14, 363-371.|
Question 1: What other MAPs are in your MAPF product?
Answer 1: Cytoskeleton's microtubule-associated protein fraction (Cat. # MAPF) contains approximately 60% MAP2, 10% MAP1, 40% tau proteins and minor amounts of other MAPs.
Question 2: Is your Tau product phosphorylated?
Answer 2: Tau is a phosphoprotein that has at least 80 in vitro phosphorylation sites. Tau proteins have molecular weights between 40-70 kDa and are known to undergo extensive post-translational modification. Cytoskeleton's purified tau protein from bovine brain (Cat. # TA01) is a mixture of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated tau.