Buffers and Stains

Cytoskeleton offers GDP and GTP for small G-protein in vitro research. Additionally, our Actin-stain™ recognizes filamentous actin enabling fluorescent visualization. For more detailed information view our datasheets below.

Cytoskeleton's products have been cited hundreds of times over the past 18 years. A select few are described here, for more citations on individual products please use the "Citations" tab on each individual product page.


Phalloidin (rhodamine): 14uM (Cat. # PHDR1)

Ezratty, E. J., Partridge, M. A. and Gundersen, G. G. (2005). Microtubule-induced focal adhesion disassembly is mediated by dynamin and focal adhesion kinase. Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 581-590.
Gomes, E. R., Jani, S. and Gundersen, G. G. (2005). Nuclear movement regulated by Cdc42, MRCK, myosin, and actin flow establishes MTOC polarization in migrating cells. Cell 121, 451-463.
Chandhoke, S. K., Williams, M., Schaefer, E., Zorn, L. and Blystone, S. D. (2004). β3 integrin phosphorylation is essential for Arp3 organization into leukocyte αVβ3-vitronectin adhesion contacts. J. Cell Sci. 117, 1431-1441.
Hsieh-Wilson, L. C., Benfenati, F., Snyder, G. L., Allen, P. B., Nairn, A. C. and Greengard, P. (2003). Phosphorylation of spinophilin modulates its interaction with actin filaments. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 1186-1194.
Qian, Y., Baisden, J. M., Cherezova, L., Summy, J. M., Guappone-Koay, A., Shi, X., Mast, T., Pustula, J., Zot, H. G., Mazloum, N. et al. (2002). PKC phosphorylation increases the ability of AFAP-110 to cross-link actin filaments. Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 2311-2322.
Chen, J., Fabry, B., Schiffrin, E. L. and Wang, N. (2001). Twisting integrin receptors increases endothelin-1 gene expression in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280, C1475-1484.

Exoenzyme C3 transferase protein: His tagged:  Clostridium botulinum recombinant (Cat. # CT03)

Benink, H. A. and Bement, W. M. (2005) J. Cell Biol. 168: 429-439.
Fleming, Y. M. et al. (2004) J. Cell Sci. 117: 2377-2388.
Mammoto, A. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279: 26323-26330.
Pellegrino, M. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279: 6526-6533.
Simpson, K. J. et al. (2004) Cancer Res. 64: 8694-8701.
Burakov, A. et al. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 162: 963-969.
Zhang, X. F. et al. (2003) Neuron 40: 931-944.
Valderrama, F. et al. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 1560-1565.

Question 1:  Does Cytoskeleton sell lysis buffer for activation assays?

Answer 1:  Unfortunately Cytoskeleton does not sell lysis buffer for the activation assays.  The lysis buffers differ by kit which is why we include the uniquely-formulated and tested buffer with each activation assay.

Question 2:  Which is the most stable/brightest Acti-stain conjugate? 

Answer 2: The brightest and most stable of the Acti-stains is Acti-stain 488 (green fluorescence; Cat. # PHDG1).  Please see the table below for additional information on all of our Acti-stains. 


Cat. #

Wavelengths (Ex/EM)

Brightness (AFU)

Stability to photobleaching* (1/2 life in sec)

Background (% of total AFU at 100 nM)

Acti-stain™ 488






Acti-stain™ 535






Acti-stain™ 555






Acti-stain™ 670






* = measured in the absence of antifade.