Actin is a 43 kDa protein that is very highly conserved between species. Actin has three main isotypes (α-actin, β-actin and γ-actin), which show > 90% amino-acid (aa) homology between isotypes and > 98% homology within members of a particular isotypic group. The majority of the isotype heterogeneity is located in the amino-terminal 30 residues. The amino-terminus of actin is located on the periphery of the double-helix in F-actin (4) and this site is also thought to interact with myosin (5).
Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a large selection of highly pure and biologically active actin proteins, actin binding proteins, antibodies, buffers and research Biochem Kits™. Our Actin Biochem Kits allow researchers easy access to some of the most powerful in vivo and in vitro assays employed in the field. Many citations exist where these products have been used to solve some fundamental questions in biology. Detailed information can be found by clicking on each of the actin product categories outlined below.
Cytoskeleton's actin products have been cited hundreds of times over the past two decades. A select few are described here. More individual product citations listed on each product page.
T. Kawano et al. 2014. Honeycomb-shaped surface topography induces differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs): uniform porous polymer scaffolds prepared by the breath figure technique. Biomater. Sci. 2, 52-56.
J.J. Lee et al. 2013. Phellinus baumii extract influences pathogenesis of Brucella abortus in phagocyte by disrupting the phagocytic and intracellular trafficking pathway. J. Appl. Microbiol.114, 329–338.
AKL99 - M.H. Jensen et al. 2012. Effects of basic calponin on the flexural mechanics and stability of F-actin. Cytoskeleton. 69, 49–58.
APHL99 - M.-S. Kwon et al. 2013. Swiprosin-1 Is a novel actin bundling protein that regulates cell spreading and migration. PLoS ONE. 8: e71626.
AB07 - J.F. Beausang et al. 2013. Tilting and wobble of myosin V by high-speed single-molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy. Biophys. J. 104, 1263–1273.
AR05 - J.W. Murray 2013. Visualizing in vitro trafficking. In: The Cytoskeleton: Imaging, Isolation, and Interaction, Neuromethods, Volume 79. Rolf Dermietzel (ed). pp 19-39.
X. Xiao et al. 2013. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.304, E145-E159.
G. Choong et al. 2013. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 272, 423–430.
BK013 - J.P. Clarke and K.M. Mearow 2013. Cell stress promotes the association of phosphorylated HspB1 with F-actin. PLoS ONE. 8: e68978
BK013 - P. Wolter et al. 2012. GAS2L3, a novel target gene of the dream complex, is required for proper cytokinesis and genomic stability. J. Cell Sci. doi: 10.1242/jcs.097253.
AAN01 - Z. Liu et al. 2013. FOXO1/3 depletion in granulosa cells alters follicle growth, death and regulation of pituitary FSH. Mol. Endocrinol. doi: 10.1210/me.2012-1296.
ACFL02 - H. Zhang et al. 2013. Mammalian CAP1 (adenylyl Cyclase-Associated Protein 1) regulates cofilin function, the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. J. Biol. Chem. doi/10.1074/jbc.M113.484535.
HPG6 - N. Ostler et al. 2014. Gamma interferon-induced guanylate binding protein 1 is a novel actin cytoskeleton remodeling factor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 34, 196-209.
RP01 - K. Carvalho et al. 2013. Actin polymerization or myosin contraction: two ways to build up cortical tension for symmetry breaking. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.368, 20130005.