Actin Products

Actin is a 43 kDa protein that is very highly conserved between species. Actin has three main isotypes (α-actin, β-actin and γ-actin), which show > 90% amino-acid (aa) homology between isotypes and > 98% homology within members of a particular isotypic group. The majority of the isotype heterogeneity is located in the amino-terminal 30 residues. The amino-terminus of actin is located on the periphery of the double-helix in F-actin (4) and this site is also thought to interact with myosin (5).

Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a large selection of highly pure and biologically active actin proteins, actin binding proteins, antibodies, buffers and research Biochem Kits™. Our Actin Biochem Kits allow researchers easy access to some of the most powerful in vivo and in vitro assays employed in the field. Many citations exist where these products have been used to solve some fundamental questions in biology. Detailed information can be found by clicking on each of the actin product categories outlined below.

For more information about Actin biochemistry, post-translational modification, and actin staining techniques click here. To browse our actin product line, choose a category below.

Cytoskeleton's actin products have been cited hundreds of times over the past two decades. Example citations for purified actin, AKL99, is shown, but more citations are available on individual product pages. Please use the "Citations" tab on each individual product page.

AuthorTitleJournalYearArticle Link
Wu, Yueh-Fu O. et al.The CLIP-170 N-terminal domain binds directly to both F-actin and microtubules in a mutually exclusive mannerJournal of Biological Chemistry2022ISSN 0021-9258
Arbore, C. et al.α-catenin switches between a slip and an asymmetric catch bond with F-actin to cooperatively regulate cell junction fluidityNature Communications2022ISSN 2041-1723
Würtz, Martin et al.Modular assembly of the principal microtubule nucleator γ-TuRCNature Communications2022ISSN 2041-1723
Rimoli, Caio Vaz et al.4polar-STORM polarized super-resolution imaging of actin filament organization in cellsNature Communications2022ISSN 2041-1723
Peris-Moreno, Dulce et al.Ube2l3, a partner of murf1/trim63, is involved in the degradation of myofibrillar actin and myosinCells2021ISSN 2073-4409
Lin, Lin et al.Phase separation-mediated condensation of Whirlin-Myo15-Eps8 stereocilia tip complexCell Reports2021ISSN 2211-1247
Rodríguez-Pérez, Fernando et al.Ubiquitin-dependent remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton drives cell fusionDevelopmental Cell2021ISSN 1878-1551
Yang, Haibin et al.Complex structures of rsu1 and pinch1 reveal a regulatory mechanism of the ilk/ pinch/parvin complex for f-actin dynamicseLife2021ISSN 2050-084X
Bashirzadeh, Yashar et al.Encapsulated Actomyosin Patterns Drive Cell-Like Membrane Shape ChangesSSRN Electronic Journal2021Article Link
Lee, Gloria et al.Myosin-driven actin-microtubule networks exhibit self-organized contractile dynamicsScience Advances2021ISSN 2375-2548
Giampazolias, Evangelos et al.Secreted gelsolin inhibits DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation and cancer immunityCell2021ISSN 1097-4172
Hsiao, Bo Yuan et al.Human costars family protein abracl modulates actin dynamics and cell migration and associates with tumorigenic growthInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences2021ISSN 1422-0067
Gübeli, Raphael J. et al.In Vitro-Evolved Peptides Bind Monomeric Actin and Mimic Actin-Binding Protein Thymosin-β4ACS Chemical Biology2021ISSN 1554-8937
Iv, Francois et al.Insights into animal septins using recombinant human septin octamers with distinct SEPT9 isoformsJournal of cell science2021ISSN 1477-9137
Colombo, Jessica et al.A functional family of fluorescent nucleotide analogues to investigate actin dynamics and energeticsNature Communications2021ISSN 2041-1723
Anderson, S. J. et al.Subtle changes in crosslinking drive diverse anomalous transport characteristics in actin-microtubule networksSoft Matter2021ISSN 1744-6848
Kučera, Ondřej et al.Anillin propels myosin-independent constriction of actin ringsNature Communications2021ISSN 2041-1723
Lee, Gloria et al.Active cytoskeletal composites display emergent tunable contractility and restructuringSoft Matter2021ISSN 1744-6848
Hsiao, An Shan et al.An intrinsically disordered protein interacts with the cytoskeleton for adaptive root growth under stressPlant Physiology2020ISSN 1532-2548
Kumar, Ashok et al.Actin R256 Mono-methylation Is a Conserved Post-translational Modification Involved in TranscriptionCell Reports2020ISSN 2211-1247
Wu, Hongpo et al.Alloxan disintegrates the plant cytoskeleton and suppresses Mlo-mediated powdery mildew resistancePlant and Cell Physiology2020ISSN 1471-9053
Jarsch, Iris K. et al.A direct role for SNX9 in the biogenesis of filopodiaJournal of Cell Biology2020ISSN 1540-8140
Ricketts, Shea N. et al.Triggering Cation-Induced Contraction of Cytoskeleton Networks via MicrofluidicsFrontiers in Physics2020ISSN 2296-424X
Rai, Amrita et al.The mechanism of activation of the actin binding protein EHBP1 by Rab8 family membersNature Communications2020ISSN 2041-1723
Cheng, Yu Shu et al.The load dependence and the force-velocity relation in intact myosin filaments from skeletal and smooth musclesAmerican Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology2020ISSN 1522-1563
Lin, Shan Shan et al.Dynamin-2 Regulates Postsynaptic Cytoskeleton Organization and Neuromuscular Junction DevelopmentCell Reports2020ISSN 2211-1247
Liao, Kuo An et al.Characterizing the actin-binding ability of Zasp52 and its contribution to myofibril assemblyPLoS ONE2020ISSN 1932-6203
Liang, Xiaoling et al.Transgelin 2 is required for embryo implantation by promoting actin polymerizationFASEB Journal2019ISSN 1530-6860
Li, Zhiwei et al.Homer Tetramer Promotes Actin Bundling Activity of DrebrinStructure2019ISSN 1878-4186
Anderson, Sylas J. et al.Filament Rigidity Vies with Mesh Size in Determining Anomalous Diffusion in CytoskeletonBiomacromolecules2019ISSN 1526-4602
Steinz, Maarten M. et al.Oxidative hotspots on actin promote skeletal muscle weakness in rheumatoid arthritisJCI Insight2019ISSN 2379-3708
Laitila, Jenni et al.A nebulin super-repeat panel reveals stronger actin binding toward the ends of the super-repeat regionMuscle and Nerve2019ISSN 1097-4598
Balta, Emre et al.Spatial oxidation of L-plastin downmodulates actin-based functions of tumor cellsNature Communications2019ISSN 2041-1723
Piroli, Gerardo G. et al.Identification of novel protein targets of DMF modification in neurons and astrocytes reveals actions independent of Nrf2 stabilizationMolecular and Cellular Proteomics2019ISSN 1535-9484
Shashi, Vandana et al.Heterozygous variants in MYBPC1 are associated with an expanded neuromuscular phenotype beyond arthrogryposisHuman Mutation2019ISSN 1098-1004
Gardini, Lucia et al.A protocol for single molecule imaging and tracking of processive myosin motorsMethodsX2019ISSN 2215-0161
Sieck, Gary C. et al.Mechanisms underlying TNFα-induced enhancement of force generation in airway smooth musclePhysiological Reports2019ISSN 2051-817X
Stavusis, Janis et al.Novel mutations in MYBPC1 are associated with myogenic tremor and mild myopathyAnnals of Neurology2019ISSN 1531-8249
Lin, Shan-Shan et al.F-actin Bundle Sedimentation AssayBio-Protocol2019ISSN 2331--8325
Sonal et al.Myosin-II activity generates a dynamic steady state with continuous actin turnover in a minimal actin cortexJournal of Cell Science2019ISSN 1477-9137
Francis, Madison L. et al.Non-monotonic dependence of stiffness on actin crosslinking in cytoskeleton compositesSoft Matter2019ISSN 1744-6848
Cheng, Yu Shu et al.Cleavage of loops 1 and 2 in skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) leads to a decreased functionArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics2019ISSN 1096-0384
Antoku, Susumu et al.ERK1/2 Phosphorylation of FHOD Connects Signaling and Nuclear Positioning Alternations in Cardiac LaminopathyDevelopmental Cell2019ISSN 1878-1551
Kumar, Dhivya et al.Microvillar and ciliary defects in zebrafish lacking an actin-binding bioactive peptide amidating enzymeScientific Reports2018ISSN 2045-2322
Weise-Cross, Laura et al.Actin polymerization contributes to enhanced pulmonary vasoconstrictor reactivity after chronic hypoxiaAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology2018ISSN 1522-1539
Ahmed, Zubair M. et al.Inframe deletion of human ESPN is associated with deafness, vestibulopathy and vision impairmentJournal of Medical Genetics2018ISSN 1468-6244
Ricketts, Shea N. et al.Co-Entangled Actin-Microtubule Composites Exhibit Tunable Stiffness and Power-Law Stress RelaxationBiophysical Journal2018ISSN 1542-0086
Kommaddi, Reddy Peera et al.Aβ mediates F-actin disassembly in dendritic spines leading to cognitive deficits in alzheimer’s diseaseJournal of Neuroscience2018ISSN 1529-2401
Khatra, Harleen et al.Hedgehog Antagonist Pyrimidine–Indole Hybrid Molecule Inhibits Ciliogenesis through Microtubule DestabilisationChemBioChem2018ISSN 1439-7633
Gardini, Lucia et al.Dissecting myosin-5B mechanosensitivity and calcium regulation at the single molecule levelNature Communications2018ISSN 2041-1723
Zeng, Menglong et al.Reconstituted Postsynaptic Density as a Molecular Platform for Understanding Synapse Formation and PlasticityCell2018ISSN 1097-4172
Papadaki, Maria et al.Diabetes with heart failure increases methylglyoxal modifications in the sarcomere, which inhibit functionJCI insight2018ISSN 2379-3708
Yeyati, Patricia L. et al.KDM3A coordinates actin dynamics with intraflagellar transport to regulate cilia stabilityJournal of Cell Biology2017ISSN 1540-8140
Shepardson, Kelly M. et al.Induction of antiviral immune response through recognition of the repeating subunit pattern of viral capsids is toll-like receptor 2 dependentmBio2017ISSN 2150-7511
Garagounis, Constantine et al.Microcompartmentation of cytosolic aldolase by interaction with the actin cytoskeleton in ArabidopsisJournal of Experimental Botany2017ISSN 1460-2431
Ordija, Christine M. et al.Free actin impairs macrophage bacterial defenses via scavenger receptor MARCO interaction with reversal by plasma gelsolinAmerican Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology2017ISSN 1522-1504
Heier, Jonathon A. et al.Measuring protein binding to F-actin by co-sedimentationJournal of Visualized Experiments2017ISSN 1940-087X
Kubiniok, Peter et al.Time-resolved phosphoproteome analysis of paradoxical RAF activation reveals novel targets of ERKMolecular and Cellular Proteomics2017ISSN 1535-9484
Goryunov, D et al.Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1: domains, interaction partners, and tissue-specific functionsMethods in Enzymology2016Article Link
Gurmessa, Bekele et al.Entanglement Density Tunes Microscale Nonlinear Response of Entangled ActinMacromolecules2016ISSN 1520-5835
Ambrosi, Cinzia et al.Connexin43 forms supramolecular complexes through non-overlapping binding sites for drebrin, tubulin, and ZO-1PLoS ONE2016ISSN 1932-6203
Yamanaka, Daisuke et al.Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 crosslinks actin filaments through its actin binding and multimerization properties In Vitro and enhances endocytosis in HEK293 cellsFrontiers in Endocrinology2016ISSN 1664-2392
Belyy, Alexander et al.Actin activates Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY nucleotidyl cyclase toxin and ExoY-like effector domains from MARTX toxinsNature Communications2016ISSN 2041-1723
Walrant, Astrid et al.Triggering actin polymerization in xenopus egg extracts from phosphoinositide-containing lipid bilayersMethods in Cell Biology2015ISSN 0091-679X
Zheng, Lili et al.Correction to Characterization and regulation of an additional actin-filamentbinding site in large isoforms of the stereocilia actin-bundling protein espin [Journal of Cell Science (2015), 127, 1306-1317]Journal of Cell Science2015ISSN 1477-9137
Fukumoto, Miki et al.α-Actinin-4 enhances colorectal cancer cell invasion by suppressing focal adhesion maturationPLoS ONE2015ISSN 1932-6203
Falzone, Tobias T. et al.Entangled F-actin displays a unique crossover to microscale nonlinearity dominated by entanglement segment dynamicsSoft Matter2015ISSN 1744-6848
Luo, Shen et al.Taurine chloramine-induced inactivation of cofilin protein through methionine oxidationFree Radical Biology and Medicine2014ISSN 1873-4596
Chan, Eddie et al.The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone), TBE-31 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell migration through direct binding with actinCancer Prevention Research2014ISSN 1940-6215
Maiden, Stephanie L. et al.Specific conserved C-terminal amino acids of caenorhabditis elegans HMP-1/α-catenin modulate f-actin binding independently of vinculinJournal of Biological Chemistry2013ISSN 0021-9258
Chacón-Martínez, Carlos Andrés et al.The switch-associated protein 70 (SWAP-70) bundles actin filaments and contributes to the regulation of F-actin dynamicsJournal of Biological Chemistry2013ISSN 0021-9258
Lu, Wenshu et al.Nesprin interchain associations control nuclear sizeCellular and Molecular Life Sciences2012ISSN 1420-682X
Butler, Suzanne C. et al.Inhibitory effects of pectenotoxins from marine algae on the polymerization of various actin isoformsToxicology in Vitro2012ISSN 0887-2333
Jensen, Mikkel Herholdt et al.Effects of basic calponin on the flexural mechanics and stability of F-actinCytoskeleton2012ISSN 1949--3592
Muthu, Muralidharan et al.The crystal structures of dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats: Implications for domain boundariesPLoS ONE2012ISSN 1932-6203
Windhorst, Sabine et al.Functional role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase-A for motility of malignant transformed cellsInternational Journal of Cancer2011ISSN 1097--0215
Zhang, Tong et al.Growth-Arrest-Specific protein 2 inhibits cell division in xenopus embryosPLoS ONE2011ISSN 1932-6203
Zucchini, Daniela et al.Kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of the putative monooxygenase domain of human MICAL-1Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics2011ISSN 0003-9861
Choi, Chang Hoon et al.Expression of Actin-interacting Protein 1 Suppresses Impaired Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Cells Lacking the Na+-H+ Exchanger NHE1Molecular Biology of the Cell2010ISSN 1059-1524
Eiseler, Tim et al.Protein kinase D controls actin polymerization and cell motility through phosphorylation of cortactinJournal of Biological Chemistry2010ISSN 0021-9258
Romagnoli, Silvia et al.Cytosolic proteins from tobacco pollen tubes that crosslink microtubules and actin filaments in vitro are metabolic enzymesCytoskeleton2010ISSN 1949-3584
Sawyer, Gregory M. et al.Disease-associated Substitutions in the Filamin B Actin Binding Domain Confer Enhanced Actin Binding Affinity in the Absence of Major Structural Disturbance: Insights from the Crystal Structures of Filamin B Actin Binding DomainsJournal of Molecular Biology2009ISSN 0022-2836
Norman, Holly et al.Myofibrillar protein and gene expression in acute quadriplegic myopathyJournal of the Neurological Sciences2009ISSN 0022-510X
Clark, Alice R. et al.Skeletal dysplasias due to filamin A mutations result from a gain-of-function mechanism distinct from allelic neurological disordersHuman Molecular Genetics2009ISSN 0964-6906
Del Duca, Stefano et al.Effects of post-translational modifications catalysed by pollen transglutaminase on the functional properties of microtubulesand actin filamentsBiochemical Journal2009ISSN 1470-8728
Chellaiah, Meenakshi A. et al.Phosphorylation of a Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein-associated signal complex is critical in osteoclast bone resorptionJournal of Biological Chemistry2007ISSN 0021-9258
Spitz, Jean Alexis et al.Assessment of cellular actin dynamics by measurement of fluorescence anisotropyAnalytical Biochemistry2007ISSN 1096-0309
Allingham, John S. et al.A Structural Basis for Regulation of Actin Polymerization by PectenotoxinsJournal of Molecular Biology2007ISSN 0022-2836
Arora, Pamela D. et al.Gelsolin Mediates Collagen Phagocytosis through a Rac-dependent StepMolecular Biology of the Cell2004ISSN 1059-1524
Holaska, James M. et al.Emerin caps the pointed end of actin filaments: Evidence for an actin cortical network at the nuclear inner membranePLoS Biology2004ISSN 1544-9173
Goryunov, Dmitry et al.Studying cytolinker proteinsMethods in Cell Biology2004ISSN 0091-679X
Ishikawa, Takashi et al.Subdomain organization of the Acanthamoeba myosin IC tail from cryo-electron microscopyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2004ISSN 0027-8424
Salmikangas, Paula et al.Myotilin, the limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1A (LGMD1A) protein, cross-links actin filaments and controls sarcomere assemblyHuman Molecular Genetics2003ISSN 0964-6906
Loomis, Patricia A. et al.Espin cross-links cause the elongation of microvillus-type parallel actin bundles in vivo2003PMID 14657236
Balcer, Heath I. et al.Coordinated Regulation of Actin Filament Turnover by a High-Molecular-Weight Srv2/CAP Complex, Cofilin, Profilin, and Aip12003PMID 14680631
Upadhyaya, Arpita et al.Probing polymerization forces by using actin-propelled lipid vesiclesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2003ISSN 0027-8424
Sagot, Isabelle et al.An actin nucleation mechanism mediated by Bni1 and ProfilinNature Cell Biology 2002 4:82002ISSN 1476--4679
Humphries, Christine L. et al.Direct regulation of Arp2/3 complex activity and function by the actin binding protein coronin2002ISSN 0021--9525
McGhie, E. J. et al.Cooperation between actin-binding proteins of invasive Salmonella: SipA potentiates SipC nucleation and bundling of actinThe EMBO Journal2001ISSN 1460--2075
Engqvist-Goldstein, Åsa E.Y. et al.The actin-binding protein Hip1R associates with clathrin during early stages of endocytosis and promotes clathrin assembly in vitroJournal of Cell Biology2001ISSN 0021-9525
  1. Actin Binding Protein Spin-Down Assay Biochem Kit: human platelet actin BK013
    Actin Binding Protein Spin-Down Assay Biochem Kit: human platelet actin
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  2. Actin Binding Protein Spin-Down Assay Biochem Kit: rabbit skeletal muscle actin BK001
    Actin Binding Protein Spin-Down Assay Biochem Kit: rabbit skeletal muscle actin
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  3. Actin Polymerization Biochem Kit (fluorescence format): rabbit skeletal muscle actin BK003
    Actin Polymerization Biochem Kit (fluorescence format): rabbit skeletal muscle actin
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  4. Actin protein ( >99% pure): rabbit skeletal muscle AKL99
    Actin protein (>99% pure): rabbit skeletal muscle
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  5. Actin protein (>95% pure): rabbit skeletal muscle AKL95
    Actin protein (>95% pure): rabbit skeletal muscle
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  6. Actin protein (>99% pure): bovine cardiac muscle AD99
    Actin protein (>99% pure): bovine cardiac muscle
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  7. Actin protein (>99% pure): chicken gizzard muscle AS99
    Actin protein (>99% pure): chicken gizzard muscle
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  8. Actin protein (biotin): skeletal muscle AB07
    Actin protein (biotin): skeletal muscle
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  9. Actin protein (pre-formed filaments): rabbit skeletal muscle AKF99
    Actin protein (pre-formed filaments): rabbit skeletal muscle
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  10. Actin protein (pyrene labeled): rabbit skeletal muscle AP05
    Actin protein (pyrene labeled): rabbit skeletal muscle Learn More
  11. Actin protein (rhodamine): human platelet APHR
    Actin protein (rhodamine): human platelet
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  12. Actin protein (rhodamine): rabbit skeletal muscle AR05
    Actin protein (rhodamine): rabbit skeletal muscle
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  13. Alpha-actinin protein: rabbit skeletal muscle AT01
    Alpha-actinin protein: rabbit skeletal muscle
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  14. F-actin Visualization Biochem Kit (fluorescence format) BK005
    F-actin Visualization Biochem Kit (fluorescence format)
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  15. G-Actin/F-actin In Vivo Assay Biochem Kit BK037
    G-Actin/F-actin In Vivo Assay Biochem Kit
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  16. Heavy Meromyosin Protein (HMM Fragment from cardiac muscle tissue) CS-MH03

    Heavy Meromyosin Protein (HMM Fragment from cardiac muscle tissue)

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  17. MICAL-1 Protein 6xHis MIC01
    6xHis MICAL-1 Protein Redox-CH domains (2 x 50 micrograms) Learn More
  18. MICAL-Oxidized (Pyrene labeled) Actin Protein (>95% pure): Rabbit Skeletal Muscle MPAX1
    MICAL-Oxidized Pyrene Actin Protein (>95% pure): Rabbit Skeletal Muscle (250 micrograms) Learn More
  19. MICAL-Oxidized Actin Protein (>95% pure): Rabbit Skeletal Muscle MXA95
    MICAL-Oxidized Actin Protein (>95% pure): Rabbit Skeletal Muscle (250 micrograms) Learn More
  20. MsrB2 Protein 6xHis MB201
    6xHis MsrB2 Protein aa: 42-182 (2 x 50 micrograms) Learn More
  21. Myosin II protein: rabbit skeletal muscle MY02
    Myosin II protein: rabbit skeletal muscle
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