Product Uses Include
General tubulin buffer (PEM). Contains 80 mM PIPES pH 6.9, 2 mM MgCl2 and 0.5 mM EGTA. Used as a tubulin working buffer in the form of G-PEM (i.e. PEM plus 1 mM GTP (Cat.# BST06)) or a tubulin polymerization buffer in the form of glycerol containing G-PEM (PEM plus 1 mM GTP (Cat. # BST06) and e.g. 5% glycerol (see Cat. # BST05)).
Chen et al., 2012. Protopine, a novel microtubule-stabilizing agent, causes mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett. 315, 1-11.
Hartley et al., 2012. Polygamain, a New Microtubule Depolymerizing Agent That Occupies a Unique Pharmacophore in the Colchicine Site. Mol. Pharmacol. 81, 431-439.
Chang et al., 2011. Mycotoxin Citrinin Induced Cell Cycle G2/M Arrest and Numerical Chromosomal Aberration Associated with Disruption of Microtubule Formation in Human Cells. Toxicol. Sci. 119, 84–92.
Risinger et al., 2011. ELR510444, A Novel Microtubule Disruptor with Multiple Mechanisms of Action. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 336, 652–660.
Faridi et al., 2011. Proteomics indicates modulation of tubulin polymerization by L-menthol inhibiting human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. Proteomics. 11, 2115-2119.
Carletti et al., 2011. Effect of protein glutathionylation on neuronal cytoskeleton: a potential link to neurodegeneration. Neuroscience. 192, 285-294.
O'Boyle et al., 2010. Synthesis and Evaluation of Azetidinone Analogues of Combretastatin A-4 as Tubulin Targeting Agents. J. Med. Chem. 53, 8569-8584.
Kushkuley et al., 2009. Neurofilament cross-bridging competes with kinesin-dependent association of neurofilaments with microtubules. J Cell Sci. 122, 3579-86.
Chen et al., 2005. A-432411, a novel indolinone compound that disrupts spindle pole formation and inhibits human cancer cell growth. Mol. Cancer Ther. 4, 562-568.
Huang et al., 2005. CIL-102 interacts with microtubule polymerization and causes mitotic arrest following apoptosis in the human prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 2771-2779.
Rouzier et al., 2005. Microtubule-associated protein tau: A marker of paclitaxel sensitivity in breast cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8315-8320.
Jiang et al., 2002. Double blockade of cell cycle at G1-S transition and M phase by 3-iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester, a new type of tubulin ligand. Cancer Res. 62, 6080-6088.
Mooberry et al., 1999. Laulimalide and isolaulimalide, new paclitaxel-like microtubule-stabilizing agents. Cancer Res. 59, 653-660.
Question 1: How does general tubulin buffer differ from G-PEM buffer?
Answer 1: Basically, these buffers are the same except that G-PEM contains 1mM GTP to support tubulin polymerization. General tubulin buffer (Cat. # BST01) and PEM buffer typically contain 80 mM PIPES, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM EGTA pH 7.0. Both buffers should be supplemented with 1 mM GTP (hence, the “G” in G-PEM buffer).
Question 2: Is glycerol necessary for the maintenance of biologically-active tubulin?
Answer 2: Glycerol is often added to a final concentration of 5 - 10% to enhance polymerization; however, glycerol is not necessary for the maintenance of biologically active tubulin.
If you have any questions concerning this product, please contact our Technical Service department at firstname.lastname@example.org