RhoA G-LISA Activation Assay Kit (Colorimetric format) 96 assays

G-LISA RhoA Activation Assay Biochem Kit (colorimetric format)
$0.00

Product Uses Include

  • Rho signaling pathway studies
  • Rho activation assays with primary cells
  • Studies of Rho activators and inactivators
  • Rho activation assays with limited material
  • High throughput screens for Rho activation

Introduction
The G-LISA Rho activation assays are ELISA based Rho activation assays with which you can measure Rho activity in cells in less than 3 h. BK124 is very sensitive and has excellent accuracy between duplicate samples. For a more detailed introduction on G-LISA assays and a listing of other available G-LISA kits, see our main G-LISA page. The BK124 Rho activation assay kit measures the level of GTP-loaded RhoA only in cells. The level of activation is measured with absorbance set at 490nm. For a kit to measure RhoA activation with luminescence detection, see Cat. # BK121.

See G-LISA FAQs tab on our G-LISA page for more details.

know-your-rho

 

Kit contents
The kit contains sufficient reagents to perform 96 RhoA activation assays. Since the Rho-GTP affinity wells are supplied as strips and the strips can be broken into smaller pieces, each kit can be used for anywhere from one to multiple assays. The following components are included in the kit:

  1. Rho-GTP affinity wells (12 strips of 8 wells)
  2. Lysis buffer
  3. Binding buffer
  4. Antigen presenting buffer
  5. Wash buffer
  6. Antibody dilution buffer
  7. Anti-RhoA antibody
  8. HRP-labeled secondary antibody
  9. Positive control RhoA protein
  10. Protease inhibitor cocktail (Cat. # PIC02)
  11. Absorbance detection reagents
  12. Precision Red™ Advanced protein assay reagent (Cat. # ADV02)
  13. Manual with detailed protocols and extensive troubleshooting guide

     

Equipment needed

  1. 96-well plate spectrophotometer capable of reading 490 nm wavelength
  2. Multichannel or multidispensing pipettor
  3. Orbital microplate shaker capable of at least 200 rpm shaking (400 rpm is optimal)

Example results
Serum starved Swiss 3T3 cells were stimulated with the Rho activating compound calpeptin and RhoA activation was measured with the G-LISA method (Figures 1 and 2)

bk124fig

Figure 1. RhoA activation by calpeptin measured by G-LISA kit BK124. Swiss 3T3 (mouse) cells were serum starved for 24 h and treated with calpeptin (Cal; 0.1 mg/ml for 30 min) or DMSO carrier only (SS). 10 µg of cell lysates were subjected to the G-LISA™ assay. Absorbance was read at 490 nm.

CT04_results

Figure 2. Rho activity measured in Swiss 3T3 cells treated with the Cell Permeable Rho Inhibitor (CT04) using the RhoA G-LISA Activation Assay (Cat.# BK124). Serum starved Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were untreated (no CT04) or treated with 0.20, 0.50 and 2.0 µg/ml of CT04 for 4h in serum free medium at 37°C, then activated with 100µg/ml calpeptin for 10min.  Cells were then lysed and RhoA activity was measured by the RhoA G-LISA Activation Assay (Cat.# BK124).  Note: At 2.0 µg/ml CT04 for 4h results in almost complete (90%) inhibition of RhoA activity.

For product Datasheets and MSDSs please click on the PDF links below.   

 

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Hauke, Michael et al.Active RhoA Exerts an Inhibitory Effect on the Homeostasis and Angiogenic Capacity of Human Endothelial CellsJournal of the American Heart Association2022ISSN 2047-9980
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Kumar, Akhilesh et al.Essential role of Rnd1 in innate immunity during viral and bacterial infectionsCell Death & Disease2022Article Link
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Ma, Yuanyuan et al.Ror2-mediated non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates Cdc42 and cell proliferation during tooth root developmentDevelopment (Cambridge)2021ISSN 1477-9129
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Gurusamy, Malarvizhi et al.G-protein-coupled receptor P2Y10 facilitates chemokine-induced CD4 T cell migration through autocrine/paracrine mediatorsNature Communications2021ISSN 2041-1723
Zhou, Qun et al.Inflammatory Immune Cytokine TNF-α Modulates Ezrin Protein Activation via FAK/RhoA Signaling Pathway in PMVECs HyperpermeabilityFrontiers in Pharmacology2021ISSN 1663-9812
Shoda, Tetsuo et al.Desmoplakin and periplakin genetically and functionally contribute to eosinophilic esophagitisNature Communications2021ISSN 2041-1723
Porter, Lauren et al.SUN1/2 Are Essential for RhoA/ROCK-Regulated Actomyosin Activity in Isolated Vascular Smooth Muscle CellsCells2020ISSN 2073-4409
Krueger, Irena et al.Reelin amplifies glycoprotein VI activation and alphaiib beta3 integrin outside-in signaling via PLC Gamma 2 and Rho GTPasesArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology2020ISSN 1524-4636
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Salgado-Lucio, Monica L. et al.FAK regulates actin polymerization during sperm capacitation via the ERK2/GEF-H1/RhoA signaling pathwayJournal of Cell Science2020ISSN 1477-9137
Bhosle, Vikrant K. et al.SLIT2/ROBO1-signaling inhibits macropinocytosis by opposing cortical cytoskeletal remodelingNature Communications2020ISSN 2041-1723
Fox, Megan E. et al.Dendritic remodeling of D1 neurons by RhoA/Rho-kinase mediates depression-like behaviorMolecular Psychiatry2020ISSN 1476-5578
Dias Gomes, Martim et al.Polarity signaling ensures epidermal homeostasis by coupling cellular mechanics and genomic integrityNature Communications2019ISSN 2041-1723
Majolée, Jisca et al.CSN5 inhibition triggers inflammatory signaling and Rho/ROCK-dependent loss of endothelial integrityScientific Reports2019ISSN 2045-2322
Santhana Kumar, Karthiga et al.TGF-β Determines the Pro-migratory Potential of bFGF Signaling in MedulloblastomaCell Reports2018ISSN 2211-1247
Li, Xu et al.A positive feedback loop of profilin-1 and RhoA/ROCK1 promotes endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stressOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity2018ISSN 1942-0994
Schillaci, Odessa et al.Exosomes from metastatic cancer cells transfer amoeboid phenotype to non-metastatic cells and increase endothelial permeability: Their emerging role in tumor heterogeneityScientific Reports2017ISSN 2045-2322
Patra, Vijay Kumar et al.The Skin Microbiome: Is It Affected by UV-induced Immune Suppression?Frontiers in Microbiology2016ISSN 1664-302X
Lu, Wen Juan et al.Senescence Mediated by p16INK4a Impedes Reprogramming of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells into Neural Crest ProgenitorsScientific Reports2016ISSN 2045-2322
Yu, Yonghao et al.Hydrogen-rich medium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced barrier dysfunction via rhoa-mdia1 signaling in caco-2 cellsShock2016ISSN 1540-0514
López-Posadas, Rocío et al.Rho-A prenylation and signaling link epithelial homeostasis to intestinal inflammationJournal of Clinical Investigation2016ISSN 1558-8238
Rom, Slava et al.PARP inhibition in leukocytes diminishes inflammation via effects on integrins/cytoskeleton and protects the blood-brain barrierJournal of Neuroinflammation2016ISSN 1742-2094
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Rom, Slava et al.The dual action of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1 (PARP-1) inhibition in HIV-1 infection: HIV-1 ltr inhibition and diminution in Rho GTPase activityFrontiers in Microbiology2015ISSN 1664-302X
Tang, Xiao et al.HCLOCK Causes Rho-Kinase-Mediated Endothelial Dysfunction and NF-κ B-Mediated Inflammatory ResponsesOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity2015ISSN 1942-0994
Manukyan, Arkadi et al.A complex of p190RhoGAP-A and anillin modulates RhoA-GTP and the cytokinetic furrow in human cellsJournal of Cell Science2015ISSN 1477-9137
Rom, Slava et al.Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in brain endothelium protects the blood-brain barrier under physiologic and neuroinflammatory conditionsJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism2015ISSN 1559-7016
Freeman, Spencer A. et al.Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptorNature Communications2015ISSN 2041-1723
Aifuwa, Ivie et al.Senescent stromal cells induce cancer cell migration via inhibition of RhoA/ROCK/myosin-based cell contractilityOncotarget2015ISSN 1949-2553
Skrbic, Biljana et al.Lack of collagen VIII reduces fibrosis and promotes early mortality and cardiac dilatation in pressure overload in miceCardiovascular Research2015ISSN 1755-3245
Ochoa-Alvarez, Jhon A. et al.Antibody and lectin target podoplanin to inhibit oral squamous carcinoma cell migration and viability by distinct mechanismsOncotarget2015ISSN 1949-2553
Herr, Michael J. et al.Tetraspanin CD9 regulates cell contraction and actin arrangement via RhoA in human vascular smooth muscle cellsPLoS ONE2014ISSN 1932-6203
Biechler V., Stefanie V. et al.The impact of flow-induced forces on the morphogenesis of the outflow tractFrontiers in Physiology2014ISSN 1664-042X
Mackay, Joanna L. et al.Simultaneous and independent tuning of RhoA and Rac1 activity with orthogonally inducible promotersIntegrative Biology (United Kingdom)2014ISSN 1757-9708
Chen, Xiaofei et al.The TMEFF2 tumor suppressor modulates integrin expression, RhoA activation and migration of prostate cancer cellsBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research2014ISSN 1879-2596
Zhu, Ying Ting et al.Knockdown of both p120 catenin and kaiso promotes expansion of human corneal endothelial monolayers via rhoa-rock-noncanonical BMP-NFκB pathwayInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science2014ISSN 1552-5783
Papke, Christina L. et al.Smooth muscle hyperplasia due to loss of smooth muscle α-actin is driven by activation of focal adhesion kinase, altered p53 localization and increased levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-βHuman Molecular Genetics2013ISSN 0964-6906
Tan, Hong et al.Fluid flow forces and rhoA regulate fibrous development of the atrioventricular valvesDevelopmental Biology2013ISSN 1095-564X
Kalia, Manjula et al.Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infects Neuronal Cells through a Clathrin-Independent Endocytic MechanismJournal of Virology2013ISSN 0022--538X
Kanazawa, Yasushi et al.The Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil restores normal motor nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats by assuring the proper localization of adhesion-related molecules in myelinating Schwann cellsExperimental neurology2013ISSN 1090--2430
DiScipio, Richard G. et al.Complement C3a signaling mediates production of angiogenic factors in mesenchymal stem cellsJournal of Biomedical Science and Engineering2013ISSN 1937--6871
Rom, Slava et al.Selective activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 in leukocytes suppresses their engagement of the brain endothelium and protects the blood-brain barrierAmerican Journal of Pathology2013ISSN 0002-9440
Dubash, Adi D. et al.The GEF Bcr activates RhoA/MAL signaling to promote keratinocyte differentiation via desmoglein-1Journal of Cell Biology2013ISSN 0021-9525
Yang, Jian et al.Inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vivoInternational Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology2013ISSN 1357-2725
Chen, Guang et al.Inhibition of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 12/chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 4 axis (CXCL12/CXCR4)-mediated cell migration by targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in human gastric carcinoma cells (Journal of Biological Chemistry (2012) 2Journal of Biological Chemistry2012ISSN 0021-9258
Greco, Carolina M. et al.Chemotactic effect of prorenin on human aortic smooth muscle cells: a novel function of the (pro)renin receptorCardiovascular Research2012ISSN 0008--6363
Dhaliwal, Anandika et al.Cellular Cytoskeleton Dynamics Modulates Non-Viral Gene Delivery through RhoGTPases2012PMID 22509380
Ramsay, Alan G. et al.Multiple inhibitory ligands induce impaired T-cell immunologic synapse function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia that can be blocked with lenali******: Establishing a reversible immune evasion mechanism in human cancerBlood2012ISSN 1528-0020
Chen, Si Meng et al.Inhibition of tumor cell growth, proliferation and migration by X-387, a novel active-site inhibitor of mTORBiochemical Pharmacology2012ISSN 0006-2952
Howe, Grant A. et al.RhoB controls endothelial cell morphogenesis in part via negative regulation of RhoAVascular Cell2012ISSN 2045--824X
Yang, Seungwon et al.The RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway as a molecular switch for anchorage dependent cell behaviorBiomaterials2012ISSN 1878--5905
Garrido‐Gómez, Tamara et al.Annexin A2 is critical for embryo adhesiveness to the human endometrium by RhoA activation through F‐actin regulationThe FASEB Journal2012ISSN 0892--6638
Zhou, Zhigang et al.HSV-mediated gene transfer of C3 transferase inhibits Rho to promote axonal regenerationExperimental Neurology2012ISSN 0014--4886
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Ramseyer, Vanesa D. et al.Tumor necrosis factor α decreases nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression primarily via Rho/Rho kinase in the thick ascending limbHypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)2012ISSN 1524--4563
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Zhu, Ying Ting et al.Nuclear p120 catenin unlocks mitotic block of contactinhibited human corneal endothelial monolayers without disrupting adherent junctionsJournal of Cell Science2012ISSN 0021-9533
Elali, Ayman et al.Liver X receptor activation enhances blood-brain barrier integrity in the ischemic brain and increases the abundance of ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 on brain capillary cellsBrain Pathology2012ISSN 1015-6305
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Question 1:  Can I detect isoforms other than RhoA, Rac1 or RalA with these G-LISA activation assays?

Answer 1:  Yes, the RhoA G-LISA (Cat. # BK124), Rac1 G-LISA (Cat. # BK128) and RalA G-LISA (Cat. # BK129) can be used to detect RhoB or RhoC, Rac 2 or Rac3 or RalB, respectively.  The capture proteins that the wells have been coated with bind all of the isoforms of the respective GTPase.  The specificity of signal is conferred by the specificity of the monoclonal primary antibody utilized.  Use of an isoform-specific monoclonal antibody allows detection of other Rho family isoforms.  Please see this citation for an example of this modified procedure (Hall et al., 2008. Type I Collagen Receptor (α2β1) Signaling Promotes Prostate Cancer Invasion through RhoC GTPase. Neoplasia. 10, 797–803). 

Basically the researcher would test their specific monoclonal antibody in a western blot first to prove specificity to the alternative isoform of interest.  For example, load RhoA and C for negative controls when testing a RhoB monoclonal antibody.  Then the researcher would use 1:50, 1:200 and 1:500 dilutions of their monoclonal antibody on duplicate cell extracts of activated and control state samples. The researcher would then choose the dilution of monoclonal antibody which gave them the highest ratio of activated:control state.

A simple activated/control state pair of extracts can be made by growing cells to 50% confluence in serum containing media, washing twice with PBS, preparing lysate and aliquoting and freezing  samples in liquid nitrogen.  With one aliquot, defrost and let stand at room temperature for 60 min to degrade the activated signal to a low basal signal, which will be the control state.  The untreated sample (2nd aliquot) will be considered “activated” which most serum grown cells are.

 

Question 2:  How many cell culture plates can I process at one time during the lysis step?

Answer 2:  We recommend that from the point at you add lysis buffer to the plate on ice to aliquoting and snap-freezing the lysate samples in liquid nitrogen, no more than 10 min are allowed to elapse.  After 10 min on ice, we find that GTP bound to GTPases (activated GTPases) undergoes rapid hydrolysis.  Rapid processing at 4°C is essential for accurate and reproducible results.  The following guidelines are useful for rapid lysis of cells.

 Washing

a.  Retrieve culture dish from incubator, immediately aspirate out all of the media and place firmly on ice.

b.  Immediately rinse cells with an appropriate volume of ice cold PBS (for Cdc42 activation, skip this step and simply aspirate the media) to remove serum proteins.

c.  Aspirate off all residual PBS buffer. This is essential so that the Lysis Buffer is not diluted. Correct aspiration requires that the culture dish is placed at a steep angle on ice for 1 min to allow excess PBS to collect in the vessel for complete removal.  As noted, the time period between cell lysis and addition of lysates to the wells is critically important. Take the following precautions:

     1.  Work quickly.

     2.  Keeping solutions and lysates embedded in ice so that the temperature is below 4°C. This helps to minimize changes in signal over time.

     3.  We strongly recommend that cell lysates be immediately frozen after harvest and clarification. A sample of at least 20 μl should be kept on ice for protein concentration measurement. The lysates must be snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70°C. Lysates should be stored at -70°C for no longer than 30 days.

     4.  Thawing of cell lysates prior to use in the G-LISA assay should be in a room temperature water bath, followed by rapid transfer to ice and immediate use in the assay.

 

If you have any questions concerning this product, please contact our Technical Service department at tservice@cytoskeleton.com.