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Actin is an integral part of the neuronal cytoskeleton as it is involved in the regulation of neuronal polarization, cell morphology, the development of neuronal processes (i.e., growth cones with lamellipodial and filopodial extensions and dendritic spines), intracellular trafficking, and synaptic plasticity (dynamic changes in dendritic spine number and/or morphology)1-3. Actin’s presence in growth cones and dendritic spines have garnered the attention of scientists for decades; however, actin is also found in neuronal axons, though its presence there has been described as the “black sheep of the neuronal actin family”4. This is because the exact details of actin’s structure and role in the axon are unknown. Recently, significant advances have been made in unraveling the structure of axonal actin with the discovery of the periodic membrane skeleton (PMS) by nanoscopic microscopy5 (Fig. 1). This newsletter discusses the discovery, structure, and possible functions of the PMS in axons.

Discovered in 2013, the PMS is a type of cortical actin and the primary component of the actin cortex, a mixture of F-actin and actin binding proteins which supports eukaryotic cells’ plasma membrane and membrane-associated processes such as endo- and exocytosis and cell motility4,5. In neuronal axons, including the initial segment6, the PMS consists of short actin filaments bundled into evenly spaced rings that wrap around the circumference of the axon with a periodicity of 180-190 nanometers5-9 (Fig. 1). The short filaments are stabilized by an adducin cap which controls the diameter of actin rings and axons, as well as actin filament growth within the rings6,10. Adjacent actin rings are secured through cross-linkage by spectrin tetramers (bII in the axon proper and bIV in the axon initial segment)6,8,11.

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    Comparison of BlastR lysis buffer to non-denaturing lysis buffers and detection of total SUMOylation 2/3, acetylation, ubiquitination, and tyrosyl phosphorylation profiles were detected with their respective antibodies.

    Recently, Horita et al. examined the post-translational modification (PTM) profile changes in the EGFR→Ras→c-Fos signaling pathway in response to EGF stimulation. PTMs are dynamic and often reversible modifications that alter protein structure and function. While tyrosine phosphorylation (pY) is well-characterized in the EGFR signaling pathway, other PTMs like acetylation (Ac), SUMOylation (SUMO), and ubiquitination (Ub) have not been thoroughly investigated. A novel toolset termed Signal-Seeker™ kits were utilized to investigate the pY, Ac, SUMO, and Ub status of the EGFR signaling axis. All 10 of the previously identified PTMs of the EGFR→Ras→c-Fos signaling pathway were identified, and a novel modification, c-Fos Ac, was also discovered. Importantly, utilizing the toolset enabled investigation of the PTM status of proteins in various cellular compartments that ranged from low to high abundance. The dynamic and endogenous levels of these PTMs were investigated in a single lysis system, providing insight into potential crosstalk between these four PTMs. Cytoskeleton's pY, Ub, SUMO 2/3, and Ac Signal-Seeker™ PTM detection kits (Cat. # BK160, BK161, BK162, and BK163, respectively) were essential reagents in this study, and provide a novel toolset for simple and effective investigation of established and novel PTMs for any target protein.
     
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    Actin and Myosin Interactions

    Actin and Myosin Interactions

    Laha et al. recently developed a new thermometric approach for measuring temperature changes of individual proteins on a nanometer (nm) scale. Spatial and temporal resolution of 80 nm and 1 mK, respectively, was achieved by attaching 2 nm cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) directly to bovine cardiac and rabbit skeletal muscle myosins. The goal was to demonstrate that temperature changes of individual motors performing work (i.e., ATP hydrolysis) can be quantified by measuring the corresponding fluorescence intensity shifts of temperature-sensitive CdTe QDs. Heat released by myosin-mediated ATP hydrolysis was quantified as a means of calculating efficiency since heat loss is inversely related to work performed. Using this nanothermometry, rabbit skeletal myosin was more efficient than bovine cardiac myosin at ATP hydrolysis. Nanometer scale sensitivity significantly improved muscle efficiency measurements toward the goal of single cell thermometry to support efforts to provide early diagnosis and treatment of muscle and metabolic diseases on a nanoscale level. Cytoskeleton’s CytoPhos Phosphate Assay, rabbit skeletal muscle myosin, and bovine cardiac muscle myosin (Cat. # BK054, MY02, and MY03, respectively) were essential reagents in this study, providing the tools necessary to measure muscle efficiency as a function of a motor’s temperature change during work.

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    Laha S.S. et al. 2017. Nanothermometry measure of muscle efficiency. Nano Lett. 17, 1262-1268.

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    The ubiquitin E3 ligase Mdm2 (murine double minute 2; human homolog, Hdm2) is well known for its oncogenic activities and as the master regulator of the powerful tumor suppressor p531,2. Moreover, Mdm2 may function as an oncogenic protein independent of p533. Mdm2 is able to inhibit p53-mediated gene expression through two pathways: inhibition of transcriptional activity by direct binding and ubiquitin-mediated degradation via its E3 ligase activity4; however, the effectiveness of p53 inhibition by direct Mdm2 binding has been questioned5.

    Under normal, non-stress conditions, Mdm2 maintains p53 expression and activity at a minimal level to tightly regulate its apoptotic/cell death transcriptional activities. Under conditions of cellular stress, Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of p53 ceases, allowing p53 to activate transcription of apoptotic genes and those involved in inhibiting cell growth. Much research concludes this is due to Mdm2's auto-inhibition by self-ubiquitination1-3. However, this story appears to be more complex than originally thought5 and involves multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we discuss Mdm2's regulation by ubiquitination, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation6-8 (Fig. 1).

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     FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadara and M. Karthykenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, SC).

    Arf activation by wild-type ARNO GEF in MDCK cells.  ARNO proteins localized with a 9e10 anti-myc primary antibody and CY2-conjugated secondary antibody (green).  F-actin labeled with rhodamine-phalloidin (red).  Cells expressing wild-type ARNO protein have robust lamellipodia (arrows).  Scale bar = 50 microns. Image provided by Dr. Lorraine Santy, Penn State University.

    Recently, Rafiq et al. examined Arf1 control of podosome assembly. Podosomes are actin-rich structures surrounded by adhesion and scaffolding proteins that are involved in cell motility and invasion. Podosomes mediate the adhesion of motile cells to the extracellular matrix and are important for the attachment to, and degradation of, the matrix by motile cells. To better understand podosome formation and maintenance, the contribution of Arf1 and its guanine exchange factors (GEFs), as well as the signaling pathways downstream of Arf1 activation, were evaluated in macrophage-like THP1 cells and fibroblasts. Inhibition of Arf1 or the Arf GEF ARNO with small interfering RNAs (Arf1 and ARNO), pharmacological inhibitors (Brefeldin A [BFA] and SecinH3 for Arf1), or expression of dominant-negative mutants (Arf1 and ARNO) significantly impaired podosome formation and maintenance. Conversely, induction of podosome formation increased levels of active Arf1. Arf1 activity was inversely related to RhoA activity as Arf1 inhibition resulted in increased activation of RhoA and myosin IIA filament assembly. Notably, levels of active Rac1 and Cdc42 were unchanged following manipulation of Arf1 activity. Cytoskeleton’s Cdc42 and Arf1 G-LISA activation assay kits (Cat. # BK127 and BK132, respectively) and cell-permeable Rho inhibitor (Cat. # CT04) were essential reagents in this study, providing the tools necessary to measure the activity of multiple GTPases in a quantitative and sensitive manner.

     

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    Rafiq N.B.M. et al. 2017. Podosome assembly is controlled by the GTPase ARF1 and its nucleotide exchange factor ARNO. J. Cell Biol. 216, 181-197.

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    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by their unlimited self-renewal and differentiation potential, have garnered special attention as therapeutics because of their capacity to differentiate into any cells of the respective adult organism1.  There are two general types of PSCs: 1. embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and 2. induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). By definition, PSCs exist in a pluripotent state until differentiation into specialized cells. To maintain stem cells as pluripotent, select transcription factors activate pluripotency-promoting genes and concomitantly suppress differentiation-promoting genes. In turn, the expression level and transactivation ability of these transcription factors are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs)2,3. Three key pluripotent transcription factors are Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog3. Their regulation of transcription is complex with each transcription factor able to function independently of the other while also capable of  auto-inhibition (e.g., Oct4)4 or forming a heterodimer whereby one factor is regulated by the complex (e.g., Nanog activity is strictly regulated by the Oct4/Sox2 heterodimer)5,6. Understanding the precise regulation of the stability (expression level) and transcriptional activity (DNA-binding affinity) of Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog by PTMs is essential in the study of stem cell homeostasis7.


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    The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) belongs to the Arf subfamily of Ras superfamily GTPases. Of the three classes of Arf GTPases, Arf6 is the only member of class III and uniquely localizes to the plasma membrane and endosomes, positioning it to regulate cellular processes dependent upon dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton, including endocytosis, exocytosis, trafficking/recycling of membrane-localized proteins, and membrane protrusions (e.g., ruffles). These cellular functions underlie physiological and pathological cell motility and intracellular trafficking. Arf6 cycles between an inactive, GDP-bound state and an active, GTP-bound state to act as a molecular switch in the cellular processes listed above. Activation of Arf6 by exchange of GDP for GTP is mediated by guanine exchange factors (GEFs) while inactivation by GTP hydrolysis is mediated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs)1-3. In this newsletter, we discuss the mechanistic roles Arf6 and its GEFs have in cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

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    FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadaraj and M. Karthikenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, SC).

    FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadaraj and M. Karthikenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, SC).

    Recently, Varadaraj et al. examined transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN). Soluble FN dimers polymerize to form insoluble, matrix-associated FN polymers in a process known as fibrillogenesis. The resulting FN fibril network is a scaffold for cell migration, repair, and adhesion mediated by binding to a5ß1 integrin receptors. TGF-ß stimulates ECM remodeling and cell migration through the induction of FN fibrillogenesis, which is necessary for TGF-ß’s effects. Here, the authors found that FN’s role in TGF-ß-mediated ECM remodeling and cell migration can occur via increased FN trafficking, i.e., recycling between the plasma membrane and cytosol. In response to TGF-β, cell surface FN is endocytosed and undergoes Rab11-mediated recycling and subsequent incorporation into fibrils, a process dependent on an interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII) and a5ß1 integrin. Cytoskeleton’s rhodamine-labeled and biotinylated fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01 and FNR03, respectively) were essential reagents in this interesting study, providing the tools necessary to discover that TGF-ß induces FN trafficking/recycling, a novel process that offers a rapid pathway by which FN can regulate cell migration, wound repair, and fibrosis.

     

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    Varadaraj A. et al. 2017. TGF-ß triggers rapid fibrillogenesis via a novel TßRII dependent fibronectin trafficking mechanism. Mol. Biol. Cell. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E16-08-0601.

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    The phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor supressor protein discovered 20 years ago by two independent laboratories1. PTEN is also known to regulate diverse cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, growth, and survival. PTEN is composed of five domains: an N-terminal phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-binding domain, a catalytic tensin-type phosphatase domain, a C2 tensin-type domain that binds phospholipids, a C-terminal tail domain, and a PDZ-binding domain (Fig. 1). The role of PTEN as a tumor suppressor is attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity which inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway integral for cell survival and growth by converting phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)- trisphosphate (PIP3) into PIP2.


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    Model: Profile of PD-L1 post-translational modifications and their roles in regulating PD-L1 protein levels.

    Model: Profile of PD-L1 post-translational modifications and their roles in regulating PD-L1 protein levels.

    Recently, Horita et al. profiled four post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein, an important immune checkpoint inhibitor and key target in anti-cancer treatments. Using a set of high-affinity, high-specificity endogenous PTM detection reagents, the authors examined PD-L1's levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and SUMOylation in A431 cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF). These studies led to the novel identification of PD-L1 modified tyrosine phosphorylation, acetylation, and mono- and multi-ubiquitination. Critical temporal studies led to the observation that mono- and multi-ubiquitination preceded an EGF-stimulated increase in total PD-L1 protein expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the EGF receptor (EGFR) activation further demonstrated that mono- and multi-ubiquitination of PD-L1 relies upon EGFR activation.  Importantly, inhibition of ubiquitin E1 activating enzyme blocked any increase in total PD-L1 protein, revealing a potential mechanistic role for ubiquitinated PD-L1 in the regulation of total PD-L1 protein levels. Cytoskeleton's Signal Seeker kits (Cat.# BK160, BK161, BK162), EGF (Cat.# CN02), anti-acetyl lysine antibody (Cat.# AAC01), and anti-tubulin antibody (Cat.# ATN02) were essential reagents in this study, providing the tools necessary for an insightful, novel characterization of PTMs that can regulate PD-L1, an important protein in immune homeostasis, and anti-cancer therapies.

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    Horita H. et al. 2017. Identifying regulatory posttranslational modifications of PD-L1: A focus on monoubiquitination. Neoplasia. 19, 346-353.

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    Worldwide, more than 47 million people have been diagnosed with dementia, and the majority of these cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD); aside from the social burden, this neurodegenerative disease has an associated cost of 1.09% of the global gross domestic product. Severe cognitive impairment that leads to deficits in skilled movements, language, and recognition are pathophysiological hallmarks of AD. On a molecular level, neuropathological hallmarks include formation of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) comprised of paired helical filaments of hyper-phosphorylated Tau proteins. This newsletter focuses on the mechanistic control of Tau by post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the development of novel AD therapeutics based on regulating the PTM status of Tau.

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    K-Ras bound to a small molecule to prevent activation by Cat. # SOS1

    GDP-K-Ras complexed to a phenol moiety (small arrow head; PDB code 4EPT; 2-hydroxyphenyl)(pyrrolidin-1-yl)methanethione) as described in Sun Q. et al. 2012. Discovery of small molecules that bind to K-Ras and inhibit Sos-mediated activation. Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51, 6140–6143.

    Recently, Sakamoto et al. discovered novel peptide inhibitors of the G12D mutant K-Ras GTPase. Of the three Ras isoforms (H-, K-, and N-), K-Ras is considered the most relevant anti-cancer drug target as K-Ras mutations underlie 86% of Ras-linked cancers with 83% of K-Ras mutations at the G12 residue. Development of K-Ras-targeting anti-cancer drugs remains elusive due to the paucity of small, druggable pockets on the GTPase’s surface and picomolar binding affinity between K-Ras and GDP/GTP nucleotides. Here, the authors screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against recombinant G12D K-Ras in the presence of GDP to identify selective G12D K-Ras inhibitors. Sequence optimization produced a selective G12D K-Ras inhibitor (IC50, 1.6 nM) in a SOS1-mediated GDP/GTP exchange assay. At 30 mM, this inhibitor also reduced proliferation and downstream K-Ras signaling in cancer cells. While less than optimal cell membrane permeability and loss of activity under reducing conditions were shortcomings with this peptide, the discovery of selective G12D K-Ras inhibitors provides a blueprint for the design of future, clinically-relevant K-Ras inhibitors. Cytoskeleton’s SOS1 exchange domain protein (564-1049 amino acids; Cat.# CS-SOS1) was used in the GDP/GTP exchange assay to confirm inhibition of G12D K-Ras activation using BODIPY-FL-GDP.

     

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    Sakamoto K. et al. 2017. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.01.147.

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    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells of the mammalian immune system that exist in either an immature, unactivated state or a mature, activated state. Immature DCs (iDCs) patrol peripheral tissues for foreign and/or pathogenic antigens (i.e., antigen sampling), localizing to sites of inflammation. Once there, iDCs find and internalize antigens by phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, or cell surface receptor-mediated endocytosis. During these activities, iDCs fluctuate between fast and slow motility, respectively, presumably to provide an optimal speed for efficient antigen sampling and capture. Concomitant with antigen capture and processing, iDCs undergo maturation, including changes in F-actin and myosin II functional localization which underlies the shift to primarily fast motility. Degraded antigens are presented on the mature dendritic cell surface as major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II-peptide complexes. Activated DCs migrate chemotactically via lymphatic vessels to naïve T cells in lymphoid organs (e.g., lymph nodes) where the captured antigens are presented to T cells (i.e., immunological synapse), thereby activating them and the adaptive immune system response (Fig. 1).

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     	Swiss 3T3 cell stained with anti-vinculin (red), Dapi (blue nucleus) and F-actin is stained with Acti-stain™ 488 (green F-actin, Cat.# PHDG1).

    Composition and architecture of extracellular matrix (ECM). Basement membrane is a type of ECM composed of laminin and collagen IV fibers embedded within a collagen I-enriched ECM.

    FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadara and M. Karthykenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, SC).

    Recently, Guzman et al. characterized a novel 3D in vitro model of multicellular cancer cell invasion that offers adjustable physiological and biochemical parameters. Shortcomings of current models are poor microscopic imaging dynamics and inability to study transmigration of cancer cells across the basement membrane (BM) and then invasion of an extracellular matrix (ECM), as happens in vivo. The BM is a type of ECM that surrounds a tumor, formed in a multi-step process initiated by cancer cells binding laminin at the cell surface to form a scaffold upon which type IV collagen polymers form. This new model offers improved imaging dynamics while also recapitulating in vivo tumor cytoarchitecture with an intact, degradable, cell-assembled, sheet-like BM layer embedded in a collagen I-enriched ECM. Cytoskeleton’s HiLyte488-conjugated laminin (Cat. # LMN02) was used to confirm that in vitro BM layer formation paralleled the in vivo process; that is, the laminin scaffold was dispersed across the surface of the multicellular tumor spheroids in a thin, patchy layer, serving as the foundation of the BM layer. This innovative 3D cancer cell invasion model offers researchers the ability to both tease apart molecular mechanisms underlying invasion and test new therapeutics in a physiologically- and biochemically-relevant setting.

     

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    Guzman A. et al. 2016. A novel 3D in vitro metastasis model elucidates differential invasive strategies during and after breaching basement membrane. Biomaterials. 115, 19-29.

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    Phosphorylated Rac1 Modified GTPase Cycle
    Legend: Rac1 GTPase cycle
    regulation by phosphorylation

    New SUMO Signal Seeker™ Kit and More!

    The functional component of the SUMO 2/3 Enrichment Kit is an anti-SUMO-2/3 antibody (clone: 11G2) which is provided as a chemically crosslinked Protein G bead conjugate. The affinity bead reagent was optimized to give no detectable leaching of either heavy or light chains in an IP assay, making the resulting data extremely specific, sensitive and clean. The affinity beads immunoprecipitate a wide range of SUMO-2/3 targeted proteins in cell extracts). Both endogenous mono- and poly- SUMOylated proteins are easily detected with characteristic multiple bands in the Western Blot detection method.

    NEW Signal Seeker™ SUMO Enrichment Kit, Cat. # BK162

    Signal Seeker™ Phosphotyrosine Enrichment Kit, Cat. # BK160

    Signal Seeker™ Ubiquitination Enrichment Kit, Cat. # BK161


     

    GOBlot™ Western Blot Processor: More New Colors!

    New GOBlot Colors

    The GOBlot™ Western Blot Processor (patents pending) was developed to be an affordable and helpful device for all scientists. With input from over 300 research scientists, the flexible routines and capabilities of the processor were defined. Western blot automation with the GOBlot saves the average researcher 3 hours a day while improving the reproduciblity of results. For more information click here.

    GOBlot™ Western Blot Processor, Cat. # WBM01


     

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    New Far-Red and Lysosome Spirochrome Live Cell Probes!

    We are excited to introduce Spirochrome's latest offering for live cell studies of the endosomal pathway. The new SiR-Lysosome and SiR700-Lysosome products can simply be added to tissue culture media or injected into tissue and the endosomes and lysosomes will be rapidly labeled with red or far-red fluorescence respectively. As for other Spirochrome probes, the new probes are compatible with dual fluorescence microscopy, cell-permeable, fluorogenic, non-cytotoxic, and compatible with super-resolution microscopy. Read more about their research applications and citations below.

    NEW SiR700-Actin Kit, Cat. # CY-SC013

    NEW SiR700-Tubulin Kit, Cat. # CY-SC014

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    NEW SiR-Lysosome Kit, Cat. # CY-SC012

     	Swiss 3T3 cell stained with anti-vinculin (red), Dapi (blue nucleus) and F-actin is stained with Acti-stain™ 488 (green F-actin, Cat.# PHDG1).
    Swiss 3T3 cell stained with anti-vinculin (red), DAPI (blue nucleus) and F-actin is stained with Acti-stain™ 488 (green F-actin stress fibers, Cat.# PHDG1).

    Recently, Jeganathan et al. examined the role of intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) in lung cancer proliferation, migration, and metastasis. These cellular processes require actin cytoskeleton re-arrangement typically regulated by RhoA, Rac1, and/or Cdc42 GTPases. ITSN-1s is a multi-domain adaptor protein linking cell surface receptors to intracellular signaling cascades. ITSN-1s’s expression levels are reduced in human lung cancer cells and tissues. Among many findings, the authors report that ITSN-1s down-regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 (Eps8) via ubiquitination and degradation, which in turn decreases the Eps8 and Ras/Rac1 guanine exchange factor mSos1 complex. The Eps8/mSos1 complex activates Rac1 which mediates the subsequent actin cytoskeletal re-arrangements necessary for cancer cell migration and metastasis. Restoration of normal ITSN-1s levels decreases Rac1 activation, increases RhoA activation (leaving Cdc42 activity unaffected), and results in a cytoskeletal network unfavorable to cancer cell migration and metastasis. Cytoskeleton’s RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 pull-down activation assays (Cat.# BK036, BK035, and BK034, respectively) were essential for the quantification of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 activities across different levels of ITSN-1s expression. These results suggest that ITSN-1s could serve not only as a novel therapeutic target, but also a prognostic and therapeutic response indicator for lung cancer (and maybe others).

     

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    Jeganathan N. et al. 2016. Rac1-mediated cytoskeleton rearrangements induced by intersectin-1s deficiency promotes lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. Mol. Cancer. 15, 59.

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    Rac activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich lamellipodia. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04.
    Rac activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich lamellipodia. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04.

    Recently, Rom et al. examined molecular pathways involved in leukocyte-mediated neuroinflammation given its causative role in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain injuries and diseases. Neuroinflammation involves a compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) as leukocytes need to engage brain endothelial cells. To do so, leukocytes utilize integrin adhesion receptors for rolling, arrest, adhesion, and transendothelial migration (TEM), processes requiring Rho-family GTPase-mediated rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, the activation of VLA-4 and LFA-1 leukocyte integrins following inhibition of PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) activity in leukocytes was studied with the goal of preventing BBB breakdown. Using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells to model the BBB, PARP inhibitors reduced leukocyte adhesion and TEM, concomitant with decreased activation of the two integrins and RhoA and Rac1 GTPases, as well as a reduced F-/G-actin ratio. Cytoskeleton’s RhoA and Rac1 G-LISA activation assays (Cat.# BK124 and BK128, respectively), Acti-stain 488 phalloidin (Cat.# PHDG1), and cell-permeable Rho inhibitor (Cat.# CT04) and Rho/Rac/Cdc42 activator (Cat.# CN04) were essential reagents, allowing for sensitive and reliable quantification of RhoA and Rac1 activation under control and experimental conditions while also measuring dynamic actin cytoskeletal changes. These results suggest novel therapies for protecting BBB integrity following brain disease and injury.

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    Rom S. et al. 2016. PARP inhibition in leukocytes diminishes inflammation via effects on integrins/cytoskeleton and protects the blood-brain barrier. J. Inflammation. 13, 254.

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    Effective treatments for central nervous system (CNS) injuries, diseases, and disorders remain a serious challenge for preclinical research scientists and clinicians This newsletter discusses some compounds that are in clinical trials or proteins/pathways that warrant consideration as therapeutic targets.

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    Cardiovascular disease accounts for roughly one in every three deaths in the USA with heart disease accounting for the majority of these cases1.  The pathology of heart disease often involves the death or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes, specialized heart cells that produce the contractile, beating function of the heart.  Many different proteins and cell machinery, such as ion channels and pumps, cytoskeletal proteins, and receptors play a significant role in regulating the contractile ability of cardiomyocytes.  Interestingly, many of these proteins are regulated through post-translational modifications (PTMs), in part because PTMs allow for rapid, but subtle changes to a protein as part of an overall cellular response2.
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    Ras and Rho-family GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including development, growth, motility, intracellular trafficking, gene expression, and the cell cycle1,2. Moreover, dysfunction of these GTPase are correlated with several human diseases (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration, bacterial pathogenesis)3-5. Like all GTPases, Ras and Rho GTPases cycle between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) regulate GTPase activation, driving the exchange of GDP for GTP in response to a variety of physiological and pathological extracellular signals1,2. Thus, GEFs are therapeutic targets; however, small molecule inhibitors require hydrophobic pockets for binding which are not typically found on GEFs (or  GTPases). Only recently have novel binding pockets on GEFs and GTPases been discovered6,7. In this light, the current newsletter explores small molecule inhibitors of Ras (N-, H-, K-Ras) and Rho (RhoA, Rac1, Cdc42) GEFs that inhibit through direct binding.

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    Crystal structure of tubulin-colchicine complex.
    Crystal structure of tubulin-stathimine-colchicine complex.

    Recently, Zheng et al. identified and characterized a novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor discovered during anti-cancer compound screenings using the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mimetic assay. The lead compound was a nitrobenzoate molecule (2-morpholin-4-yl-5-nitro-benzoic acid 4-methylsulfanyl-benzyl ester), designated as compound IMB5046. As part of the in vitro and in vivo characterization process, in vitro tubulin polymerization assays with 97% tubulin/3% microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) under cell-free conditions demonstrated that the compound inhibits tubulin polymerization, complementing findings from cell culture and mouse xenograft model studies. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology quantified the binding interaction of IMB5046 and tubulin, using biotinylated tubulin and streptavidin-coated sensor chips.  SPR data demonstrated a concentration-dependent, direct interaction and an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 31.9 µM for IMB5046. Cytoskeleton’s HTS-tubulin polymerization assay kit and >99% pure biotinylated porcine brain tubulin (Cat.# BK004P and T333P, respectively) were essential in this study, providing the necessary research tools to measure the effect of IMB5046 on in vitro tubulin polymerization as well as the binding kinetics with tubulin. In combination with the other findings, a unique, anti-cancer compound with novel chemical structure and the ability to inhibit tubulin polymerization in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines has been discovered and described.

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    Zheng Y.-B. et al. 2016. A novel nitrobenzoate microtubule inhibitor that overcomes multidrug resistance exhibits antitumor activity. Sci. Rep. 6, 31472. 

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    Tubulin Protein (Biotin): Porcine Brain, Cat. # T333P
    Tubulin Polymerization Assay Biochem Kit (HTS applications, absorbance): porcine tubulin: 24 assays, Cat. # BK004P

    Figure 1. RhoGAP activity measured as GTP hydrolysis by RhoA protein. Each reaction contained reaction buffer + GTP with the addition of RhoA alone (RhoA), RhoGAP alone (GAP), or RhoA + RhoGAP (RhoA + GAP). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min. Phosphate generated by hydrolysis of GTP was measured by the addition of CytoPhos™ reagent and reading of absorbance at 650 nm.
    Rho activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich stress fibers. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04.

    Recently, Zhan et al. investigated the molecular pathways underlying human epidermal stem cell (hESC) migration during wound repair to better understand the activity of these cells in the restoration of skin cell and hair follicle homeostasis during wound repair and healing. The authors discovered that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates hESC migration during wound repair and healing, and using the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), demonstrated that NO promotes the migration of hESCs in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, NO-mediated hESC migration in vitro requires cGMP-mediated activation of RhoA and Rac1 (but not Cdc42) signaling pathways. These signaling pathways were examined given that cell migration requires dynamic cell morphology changes which necessitate the re-arrangement of a cell’s actin cytoskeleton, which is strongly regulated by Rho-family GTPases. Cytoskeleton’s Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA pull-down activation assays (Cat. # BK034, BK035, BK036, respectively) were essential in this study, providing researchers with the necessary research tools to measure Rho-family GTPase activities in a sensitive and consistent manner. These results provide valuable insight into the essential role that Rho-family GTPases have in NO-mediated hESC migration during wound repair and healing to restore proper cellular homeostasis.

    Link to citation: 

    Zhan R. et al. 2016. Nitric oxide promotes epidermal stem cell migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase signaling. Sci. Rep. 6, 30687.

    Products used in this citation:

    Cdc42 Pull-down Activation Assay Biochem Kit (bead pull-down format) - 50 Assays, Cat. # BK034

    Rac1 Pull-down Activation Assay Biochem Kit (bead pull-down format) - 50 Assays, Cat. # BK035

    RhoA Pull-down Activation Assay Biochem Kit (bead pull-down format) - 80 Assays, Cat. # BK036

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    The tubulin homolog FtsZ (Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) protein is an essential prokaryotic cell divison protein. FtsZ is a GTPase that polymerizes in a nucleotide-dependent manner head-to-tail to form single-stranded filaments that assemble into a contractile ring called the Z-ring. This ring forms on the inside of the cytoplasmic membrane where it marks the future site of the septum of a dividing bacterial cell and is dynamically maintained through the course of cell division by continuous and rapid turnover of FtsZ polymers. FtsZ is the first protein to localize at the division site and recruits other proteins involved in bacterial cell division. Besides serving as a scaffold for other cell division proteins, FtsZ itself may exert cytokinetic forces that lead to cell division.

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    Figure 1. RhoGAP activity measured as GTP hydrolysis by RhoA protein. Each reaction contained reaction buffer + GTP with the addition of RhoA alone (RhoA), RhoGAP alone (GAP), or RhoA + RhoGAP (RhoA + GAP). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min. Phosphate generated by hydrolysis of GTP was measured by the addition of CytoPhos™ reagent and reading of absorbance at 650 nm.
    RhoGAP activity measured as GTP hydrolysis by RhoA protein. Each reaction contained reaction buffer + GTP with the addition of RhoA alone (RhoA), RhoGAP alone (GAP), or RhoA + RhoGAP (RhoA + GAP). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min. Phosphate generated by hydrolysis of GTP was measured by the addition of CytoPhos™ reagent and reading of absorbance at 650 nm.

    Recently, Bendris et al. reported a novel pathway by which the multi-functional, multi-domain scaffold protein sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) controls breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. SNX9 directly inhibits RhoA activity (and by extension, its downstream effector Rho-associated protein kinase), while exerting no significant direct effect on Cdc42. However, SNX9 directly activates Cdc42's downstream effector, neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. The authors evaluated SNX9 for guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTP-activating protein (GAP) activities. SNX9 displayed no direct GEF or GAP activity toward either GTPase. However, SNX9 did inhibit p50GAP-stimulated Cdc42, but not RhoA, GTPase activity. Thus, SNX9 controls the activity of RhoA and Cdc42 in a distinct and opposite manner. These GTPases and/or their downstream effectors control actin cytoskeletal dynamics underlying cell motility, a process integral in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Cytoskeleton's RhoGAP Assay Kit (Cat. # BK105) was an essential reagent in this study, allowing researchers to determine if SNX9 affects RhoA and Cdc42 GTPase activities by acting either as a GAP itself or influencing the activity of p50GAP. This work advances the understanding of how RhoA and Cdc42 signaling pathways control the cell motility that underlies the invasive and metastatic behavior of cancer cells.

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    Bendris N. et al. 2016. SNX9 promotes metastasis by enhancing cancer cell invasion via differential regulation of RhoGTPases. Mol. Biol. Cell. 27, 1409-1419. 

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    RhoGAP assay, 80-160 assays, Cat. # BK105

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    The Ras GTPase superfamily, which includes Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran subfamilies (among others), has been shown to regulate a wide spectrum of cellular functions. GTPases function as molecular switches, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form. The Rho GTPase subfamily includes Rho, Rac, and CDC42, and is believed to be involved primarily in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization in response to extracellular growth factors...

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    Microtubules assembled from HiLyte 488™ labeled tubulin (Cat. # TL488M).

    Microtubules assembled from HiLyte 488™ labeled tubulin (Cat. # TL488M).

    Recently, Hoj et al. further characterized compounds that were previously identified in a phenotypic, cell-based screen for inhibitors of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated scattering of epithelial cells. HGF-induced epithelial cell scattering is an in vitro model to study the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the sequential detachment, migration, and invasion of cancer cells at sites distal to the primary tumor. Thus, one potential class of anti-cancer compounds is HGF inhibitors or inhibitors of HGF-mediated signaling cascades. Here, a subset of the previously identified small-molecule compounds, those with no reported biological activity, were characterized across a variety of in vivo pharmacological and in vitro cellular and biochemical assays, including inhibition of tubulin polymerization using >99% pure tubulin to calculate maximal rates of polymerization and IC50 values for each compound. With >99% pure tubulin, inhibition was due to a direct interaction between tubulin and the compounds. Cytoskeleton's fluorescent tubulin polymerization assay kit (Cat. # BK011P) was an essential reagent in this study to not only calculate each compound's IC50 value, but also demonstrate that inhibition of tubulin polymerization is a key characteristic of compounds that also inhibit HGF-mediated epithelial cell scattering, a well-characterized and utilized in vitro model of EMT.

     

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    Hoj T.H. et al. 2016. Small molecules revealed in a screen targeting epithelial scattering are inhibitors of microtubule polymerization.J. Biomol. Screen. doi: 10.1177/1087057116651850

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    Cardiovascular disease accounts for roughly one in every three deaths in the USA with heart disease accounting for the majority of these cases.  The pathology of heart disease often involves the death or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes, specialized heart cells that produce the contractile, beating function of the heart.  Many different proteins and cell machinery, such as ion channels and pumps, cytoskeletal proteins, and receptors play a significant role in regulating the contractile ability of cardiomyocytes. 

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    Cardiovascular disease accounts for roughly one in every three deaths in the USA with heart disease accounting for the majority of these cases1.  The pathology of heart disease often involves the death or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes, specialized heart cells that produce the contractile, beating function of the heart.  Many different proteins and cell machinery, such as ion channels and pumps, cytoskeletal proteins, and receptors play a significant role in regulating the contractile ability of cardiomyocytes.  Interestingly, many of these proteins are regulated through post-translational modifications (PTMs), in part because PTMs allow for rapid, but subtle changes to a protein as part of an overall cellular response2.
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    Kinesin motor proteins regulate mitosis and anterograde cargo transport as exemplified by fast axonal transport (FAT) in neurons. Neurons depend on kinesins for cell cycle regulation, especially the assembly and function of the mitotic spindle, a macromolecular structure composed primarily of microtubules (MTs) that undergo cycles of polymerization and depolymerization to properly segregate duplicate chromosomes into separate daughter cells.

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    HeLa CCL-2 cells were grown to 70% confluency at 37°C/5% CO2. Cells were untreated (lanes S1, P1, S2, P2) or treated with 3.3 mM of the tubulin polymerizing drug paclitaxel (i.e., taxol) for 60 min at 37°C/5% CO2 (lanes S3, P3, S4, P4). Cells were lysed and separated into supernatant (S) and pellet (P) fractions and analyzed by western blot quantitation of tubulin protein according to the Microtubules/Tubulin In Vivo Assay Kit (Cat. # BK038) instructions.

    Rac activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich lamellipodia. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04.

    Recently, Lao et al. studied how PIAS3, the protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (the transcription factor STAT3) regulates the migration, invasion, and activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), a key component in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically joint destruction. Rate of joint destruction is positively correlated with increased FLS motility, invasion, and activity. Here, the authors examined PIAS3-mediated regulation of FLS migration and invasion, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in RA. Among other findings, PIAS3 knockdown with short hairpin RNA demonstrated that PIAS3 controls lamellipodium formation during FLS migration through activation of Rac1 GTPase as PIAS3 knockdown reduced both the activity of Rac1 and its downstream effector PAK1. Activation of this Rac1 pathway is integral in actin cytoskeleton remodeling which underlies lamellipodium formation and protrusion. Additional results strongly suggest that PIAS3-mediated regulation of Rac1 activation involves SUMOylation (specifically SUMO-1) of Rac1 by PIAS3, as it can act as a SUMO-E3 ligase. Cytoskeleton's Rac1 G-LISA activation assay kit (Cat. # BK128) was an essential reagent in this study, providing a sensitive and quantitative measurement of Rac1 activity following PIAS3 knockdown. These results expand understanding of the molecular pathways regulating FLS migration, invasion, and activation, and the subsequent joint destruction the cells mediate in RA.

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    Lao M. et al. 2016. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 regulates migration, invasion, and activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Immunol. 196, 596-606.

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    HeLa CCL-2 cells were grown to 70% confluency at 37°C/5% CO2. Cells were untreated (lanes S1, P1, S2, P2) or treated with 3.3 mM of the tubulin polymerizing drug paclitaxel (i.e., taxol) for 60 min at 37°C/5% CO2 (lanes S3, P3, S4, P4). Cells were lysed and separated into supernatant (S) and pellet (P) fractions and analyzed by western blot quantitation of tubulin protein according to the Microtubules/Tubulin In Vivo Assay Kit (Cat. # BK038) instructions.
    HeLa CCL-2 cells were grown to 70% confluency at 37°C/5% CO2. Cells were untreated (lanes S1, P1, S2, P2) or treated with 3.3 mM of the tubulin polymerizing drug paclitaxel (i.e., taxol) for 60 min at 37°C/5% CO2 (lanes S3, P3, S4, P4). Cells were lysed and separated into supernatant (S) and pellet (P) fractions and analyzed by western blot quantitation of tubulin protein according to the Microtubules/Tubulin In Vivo Assay Kit (Cat. # BK038) instructions.

    Recently, Liu et al. studied how excessive alcohol consumption regulates downstream signaling cascades of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), focusing on the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß)/collapsing response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) pathway in rodent nucleus accumbens. Excessive alcohol increases protein levels of the microtubule (MT) binding protein CRMP-2 via mTORC1-mediated translation.  Additionally, Akt is activated, initiating a sequential cascade of GSK-3ß deactivation by Akt-mediated phosphorylation and a subsequent decrease in GSK-3ß -mediated phosphorylation of CRMP-2.  Phosphorylation of CRMP-2 inhibits its binding to MTs and the alcohol-induced reduction in CRMP-2 phosphorylation increases binding between CRMP-2 and MTs, as well as MT asssembly. The authors posit that these alcohol-induced changes in MT binding and protein levels underlie the neuroadaptations (i.e., structural plasticity) that occur in the development and/or maintenance of alcohol-drinking behaviors. Cytoskeleton’s Microtubule Binding Protein Spin-down Assay Kit (Cat. # BK029) and Microtubule/Tubulin In Vivo Assay Kit (Cat. # BK038) were essential reagents in this study, providing quantitation of both MT binding to CRMP-2 and changes in MT content after excessive alcohol consumption. These data suggest that CRMP-2 and its functional relationship with MTs is an essential step in the alcohol-induced neuroadaptations that underlie addiction and addictive behaviors.

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    Liu F. et al. 2016. mTORC1-dependent translation of collapsing response mediator protein-2 drives neuroadaptations underlying excessive alcohol-drinking behaviors. Mol. Psychiatry. Doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.12.

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    Elevations in blood glucose levels are sensed in pancreatic b-cells, which respond through a complex signaling pathway involving mitochondrial-dependent glucose metabolism1. The culmination of this pathway is the mobilization of intracellular insulin-loaded vesicles that fuse with the cell membrane releasing their contents into the...

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     A) Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, untreated (top) or treated (bottom) with 5 M TSA (16 h). Acetylated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were visualized in green fluorescence.  B) Silver stain of acetyl-lysine immunoprecipitates from wild-type (WT) and muscle-specific knock-out of E1a-binding protein (mKO) mice.
    Figure 1: Rac1 is activated in serum treated migrating Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, as shown by staining for F-actin rich lamellipodia with rhodamine phalloidin (Cat. # PHDR1).

    Recently, Qin et al. studied the interplay between matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-b1) and the effect on each protein’s expression and activity levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells as HCC is responsible for most primary liver cancers.  MMPs are integral for tumor cell metastasis and invasion while TGF-b1 drives cancer progression via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induction of MPP expression.  The authors found that the proteins reciprocally activate each other, leading to increased EMTs and HCC metastasis and invasion in vitro. Moreover, each protein rescues the depleted expression of the other in vitro. In both cases, the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling pathway is the primary mediator as demonstrated pharmacologically. Furthermore, overexpression of MMP-8 or TGF-b1 increases PI3K/Akt/Rac1 pathway activity whereas knockdown exerts the opposite effect.  Cytoskeleton’s Rac1 G-LISA activation assay kit (Cat.# BK128) was an essential reagent in this study as it provided consistent, sensitive, and quantitative measurement of Rac1 activity following manipulation of the expression and activity levels of MMP-8 and TGF-b1. Thus, Rac1 activation mediates the downstream effects of MMP-8/TGF-b1 interplay that results in increased EMT and HCC metastasis and invasion.

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    Qin G. et al. 2016. Reciprocal activation between MMP-8 and TGF-b1 stimulates EMT and malignant progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 374, 85-95.

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     A) Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, untreated (top) or treated (bottom) with 5 M TSA (16 h). Acetylated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were visualized in green fluorescence.  B) Silver stain of acetyl-lysine immunoprecipitates from wild-type (WT) and muscle-specific knock-out of E1a-binding protein (mKO) mice.
    A) Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, untreated (top) or treated (bottom) with 5 M TSA (16 h). Acetylated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were visualized in green fluorescence.  B) Silver stain of acetyl-lysine immunoprecipitates from wild-type (WT) and muscle-specific knock-out of E1a-binding protein (mKO) mice.

    Recently, LaBarge et al. examined the role of the acetyltransferase E1a-binding protein (p300) in skeletal muscle function and metabolism. Reversible acetylation, a well-known post-translational modification, is considered a regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and exercise-induced adaptation in skeletal muscles. This conclusion is based primarily on data derived from studies of deacetylases and skeletal muscle physiology with a dearth of information on how lysine acetyltransferases impact the same muscle physiology. While whole-body heterozygous and homozygous p300 knockout mice have muscle defects (along with neural and cardiac) and die in embryogenesis, to date, the role of p300 in skeletal muscle function has not been studied with a muscle-specific knock-out mouse model. Here, the authors created such an in vivo model and found that knocking out p300 affected neither the development nor function of adult skeletal muscle. Moreover, it was also not required for mitochondrial adaptation induced by endurance exercising. Cytoskeleton’s anti-acetyl lysine antibody (Cat. # AAC01) was an essential reagent in this study as it was used to confirm a functional loss of p300 in the knock-out mice. These mice had a significant reduction in total acetylation levels in skeletal muscle immunoprecipitates from knock-out, compared to wild-type, mice.

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    LaBarge S.A. et al. 2016. p300 is not required for metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise training. FASEB J. Doi: 10.1096/fj.15-281741.

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    The filamentous cytoskeleton is comprised of three distinctive polymer networks: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Their interplay is responsible for cellular structure, motility, and material transport in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Also, flexible and rapid cellular responses to external and internal stimuli are possible due...

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    Rac Ruffles PAEC 40x1
    F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1) and nuclear blue DNA staining with DAPI. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04.

    Recently, Jones et al. examined the role of Rho-family GTPases in the opposing effects of tetraspanins CD82 and CD37 in bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BDMC) migration and T cell activation by antigen presentation. Tetraspanins regulate dendritic cell motility and antigen presentation. BMDC activation upregulates CD82, resulting in decreased cell migration and increased T cell activation via stabilization of T cell/dendritic cell interactions. Conversely, CD37 is downregulated and has the opposite response. Deletion of either protein alters cell morphology and the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton. To examine the role of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 in these changes, GTPase activities in cells from either knock-out (CD37 or CD82) or wild-type mice were quantified. Using the cell-permeable Rho/Rac/Cdc42 activator CN04, the authors found that CD82 negatively regulates RhoA while CD37 (but not CD82) regulates Rac1. Both tetraspanins negatively regulate Cdc42. Cytoskeleton's cell permeable Rho/Rac/Cdc42 activator I (Cat.# CN04) and the RhoA (Cat.# BK124), Rac1 (Cat.# BK128), and Cdc42 (Cat.# BK127) G-LISA activation assays were essential reagents in this study. These reagents provided a sensitive measure of Rho-family GTPase activity to discover how these GTPases differentially contribute to the tetraspanin-mediated regulation of BDMC migration and T cell activation in the initiation of adaptive immunity.

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    Jones E.L. et al. 2016. Dendritic cell migration and antigen presentation are coordinated by the opposing functions of the tetraspanins CD82 and CD37. J. Immunol. Doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1500357.

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    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are one of three filament systems comprising the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. IFs are highly dynamic structures essential for organizing the actin and tubulin filament systems and regulating cell signaling, motility, structure, and adhesion during interphase and mitosis. The function and localization of IFs are regulated ...

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    Rac Ruffles PAEC 40x1
    F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1) and nuclear blue DNA staining with DAPI. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN03.

    Recently, Li et al. examined the signaling pathways underlying podoplanin-mediated tumor invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of podoplanin, a transmembrane glycoprotein, characterizes multiple cancers; however, its exact role(s) in tumor progression/invasion remain unknown. Here, podoplanin overexpression increased tumor cell protrusions (i.e., invadopodia) and F-actin stress fibers in OSCC cells. Concomitantly, RhoA activity decreased whereas Cdc42 activity increased. Correspondingly, podoplanin knockdown reversed these activity patterns. Rac1 activity did not change after any treatments. Additionally, RhoA and Cdc42 engaged in cross-talk (e.g., RhoA inhibition resulted in increased Cdc42 activity). Activated Cdc42 (but not RhoA) was also found to co-precipitate with matrix metalloproteinase-14 (i.e., MT1-MMP) and binding increased with podoplanin overexpression and decreased with knockdown. Cytoskeleton’s Acti-stain 488 phalloidin (Cat.# PHDG1) and RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 Activation Assay Kit (Cat.# BK030) were essential reagents in this study, providing: 1. detection of morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton necessary for increased cellular protrusions and stress fibers; and 2. confirmation that this re-organization corresponded with opposing changes in RhoA and Cdc42 activity. Thus, podoplanin-mediated tumor cell protrusion and resulting motility relies upon an activation and inhibition of Cdc42 and RhoA, respectively, which, in turn, mediate the re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

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    Li Y.-Y. et al. 2015. Podoplanin promotes the invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma in coordination with MT1-MPP and Rho GTPases. Am. J. Cancer Res.5, 514-529.

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    •  RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 Activation Assay Combo Biochem Kit (pull-down format) 3x10 assays (Cat.# BK030)
    • Acti-stain 488 phalloidin (Cat.# PHDG1)

    Temporal regulation of phosphotyrosine-modified Rac1 in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    ascb15poster
    Click here for a link to the pdf version

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to develop an assay sensitive enough to detect endogenous pY‐modified Rac1 uponstimulation by EGF. The IP assay was used in conjunction with a Rac1 activation assay to follow temporal changesin endogenous Rac1 activation and tyrosyl phosphorylation in response to EGF stimulation of HeLa and A431 cells. Rac1 activation, monitored by PAK‐binding, followed a predicted time course in which...

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    Law A., Hong S., Horita H. and Middleton K. 2015. Temporal regulation of phosphotyrosine-modified Rac1 in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Mol. Biol. Cell. ASCB Abstract Dec. B1230 / P2126. 

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    • Rac1 Pulldown Activation Assay Kit (Cat. # BK035)
    • Phosphotyrosine Antibody Mouse Monoclonal S7B10 (Cat. # APY03)
    • Anti-Phosphotyrosine Affinity Beads (Cat.# APY03-beads

     

    Rac Ruffles PAEC 40x1
    Acti-stain HiLyte 488 phalloidin (Cat.# PHDG1)
    staining of ruffles characteristic of Rac activation
    following treatement with a Rho/Rac/Cdc42
    activation (Cat.#CN04) in porcine aortic endothelial
    cells under 40X magnification.

    Recently R. Zeineddine et al. examined the molecular signaling pathways underlying cell-to-cell transmission of aggregated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Misfolding, aggregation, and transmission of SOD1 is implicated in in vitro and in vivo models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Here, the authors examined the signaling pathways involved in macropinocytosis, a form of fluid-phase endocytosis, which provides the means by which macromolecules such as SOD1 aggregates are transmitted cell-to-cell. Macropinocytosis requires membrane ruffling, which in turn, depends upon re-arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, the authors examined the activity of a known modulator of the actin cytoskeleton, the Rac1 GTPase, in motoneuron-like (NSC-34) cells. The authors found that exposure of NSC-34 cells to SOD1 aggregates initiates a cascade of sequential events: Rac1 activation > membrane ruffling > macropinocytosis > build-up of SOD1 aggregates intracellularly. Cytoskeleton’s absorbance-based Rac1 G-LISA activation assay kit (Cat. # BK128) was an essential reagent in this study, demonstrating that SOD1 aggregates induce Rac1 activation that leads to the formation of actin-based membrane ruffles. These two events are necessary for propagation of SOD1 protein aggregates (and other disease-associated protein aggregates) via macropinocytosis. These findings suggest therapeutic strategies for treating a multitude of neurodegenerative diseases.

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     R. Zeineddine et al. 2015. SOD1 protein aggregates stimulate macropinocytosis in neurons to facilitate their propagation. Mol. Neurodegener. 10, 57.

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    •  Rac1 G-LISA Activation Assay Kit (Colorimetric Based) (Cat. # BK128) 

     

    Immunofluoresence of HeLa cell in
     metaphase with ASM23 Ab (anti-SUMO2/3) and
    ATN02 Ab (anti-tubulin)

    Recently, C.R. Figueiredo et al. examined the mechanism of action underlying the anti-tumor effects of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) C36L1 synthetic peptide derived from the VL CDR1 of the C36 Fab fragment of the anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin.  This CDR exhibits both anti-tumor activity and functions as a microtubule destabilizing molecule.  Here, the authors investigated whether its microtubule-destabilizing effect is responsible for its anti-tumor activity. The authors found that the peptide induces apoptotic effects on multiple cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion, and arrests cell cycle primarily in the G2M phase. These effects follow internalization of the C36L1 peptide which then selectively binds to microtubules and destabilizes the tubulin filaments. Microtubule polymerization and depolymerization dynamics were examined in living cells and under cell-free conditions. Cytoskeleton’s fluorescent tubulin polymerization assay kit (Cat. # BK011P) was an essential reagent in this study, complementing the in vivo results and in vitro cell culture data which demonstrated conclusively that the C36L1 peptide targets microtubules in exerting its anti-tumor effects. These findings contribute to the growing and intense field of research focused on developing peptide-based cancer vaccines.

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     C.R. Figueiredo et al. 2015. A novel microtubule de-stabilizing complementarity-determining region C36L1 peptide displays anti-tumor activity against melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Sci. Rep. 5, 14310.

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    • Tubulin Polymerization Assay: 99% pure porcine tubulin, fluorescence based (Cat. # BK011P)

     

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    Cytoskeleton, Inc. was founded in 1993 and coincidentally that was the era when the Rho family of small G-proteins was determined to be major regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics. This finding was established in a very direct way by the seminal paper authored by Drs. Anne Ridley and Alan Hall who at that time worked at the Medical Research Council in London(1). Since then, Click to read more

     

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    Microtubules (MTs) are comprised of a/b tubulin heterodimers which have polymerized into cylinderical structures. MTs serve as an essential component of a cell’s cytoskeleton as they regulate and participate in a variety of cellular functions that include motility, morphology, intracellular transport, signal transduction, and cell division (Fig. 1). The cell cycle consists of the sequential G1, S, G2, and M phases with MT polymerization and depolymerization (i.e., MT dynamics) playing a key role in the normal progression of this cycle to insure proper cell division (Fig. 1). The disruption of MT dynamics, and thereby the cell cycle, leads to cell death. As such, MTs are a well-recognized and often-studied target for cancer drug discovery efforts1-4...

    Read more about Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitor Screening Here.

     

     

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    To maintain homeostasis, cells need to respond to changes in the intracellular and extracellular milieu. Some of the changes have to be acted upon quickly to avoid detrimental effects that can lead to cell damage or even death. One way that cells act is through protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) which enable... Click to read more

     

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    • New PTMtrue Antibodies and Reagents

     

    • Related Publications

     

     

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    Recent advances in organic chemical synthesis have facilitated the ultimate aim of producing small cell-permeable compounds which can efficiently label the actin cytoskeleton and track its dynamic properties... Click to read more

     

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    • New Live Cell Imaging Probes

     

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    Successful execution of mitosis requires exquisite regulation and interplay of a myriad of proteins. Recently, the post-translational modification (PTM) of SUMOylation has emerged as an important functional regulator of mitotic proteins1. SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) proteins are covalently ligated to ... Click to read more

     

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    The Ras GTPase plays an important role in multiple signal transduction pathways involved in normal cell growth and differentiation as well as several forms of cancer1,2. The three isoforms of Ras, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras, were identified over 30 years ago for their oncogenic activation in human tumors1,2.   Aberrant Ras signaling has been identified in... Click to read more

     

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    YAP1 and the Hippo Pathway

    The Hippo signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of organ size through the coordinated modulation of cell fate(1). The core pathway memebers include two sets of serine/threonine kinases (MST1/2 and LATS1.2) that act... Click to read more

     

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    RalA and RalB GTPases regulate cell motility, morphology, signaling, vesicular trafficking, and endo/exocytosis. The regulation of these functions is critical for the development and spread of cancer1-4, implicating Ral in oncogenesis and metastasis. Both isoforms are integral for Ras-mediated tumorigenesis, metastasis, and invasion... Click to read more

     

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    The Kinesin Spindle Protein (KSP; a.k.a. Eg5 or KIF11) is a plus end-directed Kinesin-5 (a.k.a. BimC) subfamily member and has been the focus of significant drug development efforts for decades.  Currently, KSP (or its homologs) is a target for anti-mitotics (cancer)1,2, anti-parasitics (malaria)3, and anti-fungals4. As a microtubule (MT) cross-linking enzyme, KSP plays a critical role in mitotic spindle pole separation, and its inhibition results in the formation of monoaster spindles which is thought to lead to mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis (Fig. 1). The targeting of KSP as a treatment for cancer is well-documented1,2,5,6. The purpose of this newsletter is to briefly discuss KSP homologs as a therapeutic target for parasitic and fungal diseases...

    Read more about KSP/Eg5 Inhibition Here.

     

     

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    The activity of Rho family GTPases is regulated temporally and spatially by a variety of direct post-translational modifications (PTMs) that include prenylation, ubiquitination, oxidation, nitrosylation, and phosphorylation (Fig. 1). This newsletter focuses on control of RhoA function through phosphorylation. RhoA is a target for a growing number of kinases and as such, phosphorylation is emerging as a central theme in the regulation of this family of proteins2... Click to read more

     

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    Nov and Dec news


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    Ras and Rho family GTPases are cytoskeletal small G-proteins that critically regulate multiple actin-dependent cell processes, including development, growth, motility, and intracellular trafficking1,2. Moreover, dysfunction of Ras and Rho family GTPases are correlated with several human diseases (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) and these GTPases are... Click to read more

     

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    Oct news


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    Protein citrullination (a.k.a. deimination) is a novel arginine-directed post-translational modification (PTM) that results in a permanent change in the targeted protein.  Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) mediate the calcium-dependent deimination of the guanidino group of... Click to read more

     

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    Since the discovery of the first kinesin spindle protein (KSP, also known as Eg5, KIF11) inhibitor, monastrol, in 1999 (1), there have been a plethora of articles, 3D structures, and FDA applications based on the same binding site (review [2]). The binding site is called the allosteric monastrol binding site (AMBS) which functionally plays a significant role in transducing chemical energy to movement of the neck-linker region. Drugs that bind this site are non-competitive...

     

    Read more about KSP/Eg5 Inhibition Here.

     

     

    Sept news


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    Recent reports have highlighted a new phase of research for molecular motors. In contrast to five or more years ago, when macromolecular approaches were used1, recent research has focused on... Click to read more

     

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    SUMOylation targeting cytoskeletal proteins news


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    Upon translation, proteins are trafficked to their proper subcellular location so that they can perform their physiological functions. One mechanism that mediates correct protein localizationand function is post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs include protease cleavage, protein folding, and the attachment of molecules such as... Click to read more

     

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    • Post-translational Modification Research Tools and more. 

     

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    kras and sos news


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    K-Ras has been identified as the most important Ras protein in cancer research, accounting for over 21% of human cancers. Despite extensive research on these proteins, no effective Ras inhibitor has been identified, earning K-Ras the reputation of an undruggable protein... Here we discuss several leading concepts in the pursuit of identifying viable drug targets to control atypical Ras signaling... Click to read more

     

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    • Small GTPase Activation Assays, Activators, Inhibitors, Proteins and more. 

     

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    The Kinesin Spindle Protein (KSP; also known as Eg5 or KIF11) is a Kinesin-5 subfamily member and has been the focus of a significant drug development effort throughout the pharmaceutical industry for the last 15 years. KSP plays a critical role in mitotic spindle pole separation, and its inhibition results in the formation of monoaster spindles which is thought to lead to mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis1. From a therapeutic standpoint...


    Read more about KSP/Eg5 Inhibition Here.

     

     

     

     

    Rho GTPases and ROS


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    Redox agents, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are key regulators in a variety of signal transduction pathways, including integrin signaling, extracellular matrix adhesion, and inflammation1-3.  Rho GTPases are also key regulators of many cellular processes, including cell growth, motility, and adhesion4. While redox agents and Rho GTPases operate through a wide array of... Click to read more

     

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    • Small GTPase Activation Assays, Activators, and Inhibitors

     

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    Lysine Acetylation Newsletter


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    The calcium-sensitive sarcomeric complex is the key mechanochemical transducing unit in muscle cells. It contains myosin, actin, tromomyosin, and three different troponins, one of which, troponin C, binds calcium and facilitates myosin binding to F-actin. The functional sarcomere is controlled by... Click to read more

     

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    • New Acetyl Lysine Antibody (Validated in WB, IP, ChIP, IF)

     

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    Lysine Acetylation Newsletter


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    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) crucial for regulating the function and localization of many eukaryotic proteins.  This PTM is reversible, regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs).  The first evidence of... Click to read more

     

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    Integrin-mediated redox control of beta-actin: PDI's Emergence


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    Cell migration is an integral part of several biological processes including angiogenesis, wound healing, and immune surveillance(1).  Integrins are αβ heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that link a cell's dynamic interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeletal rearrangements that are necessary to promote cell motility (See figure 1)... Click to read more

     

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    As Cytoskeleton’s Custom Services Department continues to grow and expand its offerings, we wanted to take the opportunity to highlight some past research projects that benefited from work performed by Cytoskeleton’s Custom Services scientists.  The three main foci of Cytoskeleton’s Custom Services are: 1) Compound Screening, 2) Assay Development, and 3) Gene Cloning and Recombinant/Native Protein Purification.  The citations discussed below demonstrate our effectiveness in all three types of custom services...

    Read more about these services here.


     

    Dynein and Neurodegenerative Diseases Newsletter


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    Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (hereafter referred to as dynein) is a 1.6 MDa multi-protein complex that serves as the primary ATP-hydrolyzing motor responsible for retrograde axonal transport along microtubules (MTs) in eukaryotic cells (Fig. 1A).   Additionally, dynein is essential for many other cellular processes, including mitochondrial movement, endosomal and lysosomal trafficking, transporting mis-folded proteins bound for degradation, nuclear positioning, and mitosis1-3 (Fig. 2)... Click to read more

     

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    Dynein newsletter


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    In eukaryote cells, cytoplasmic dynein complex (CDC) and kinesin-14 family members are the only two types of motors known to move cargo to the minus-end of microtubules (MTs)1. This function is critical for cell metabolism, structure, and movement. The majority of these processes utilize CDC because of its high fidelity and steady processive movement. CDC’s wide range of roles is impressive and the roles are further defined by ancillary proteins which select cargo or an intracellular location... Click to read more

     

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    KIF7 is a Kinesin-4 family member that has been shown to play an important role in embryonic development and may play a role in the development of basal cell carcinomas. KIF7 functions in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling through the negative and positive regulation of the GLI family of transcription factors (i.e., GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3)1.  While the mechanism of this regulation is still being elucidated, it appears that in the absence of an Hh ligand, KIF7 negatively regulates GLI transcription factor activity, and in the presence of Hh signaling it positively influences GLI dependent signaling; possibly through KIF7’s Hh-dependent translocation from the base of primary cilia to the tip1.  Mice lacking KIF7 exhibit a ...

    Read more about KIF7 Kinesin Motor Assay Here.

     

    Neurodegeneration newsletter


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    The small G-protein Rhes (Ras Homolog Enriched in Striatum) is a 266 amino acid protein found predominantly in striatum, and to a lesser extent, the cerebral cortex (Falk et al., 1999).  Recent research has revealed that this GTPase may be key to understanding the paradoxical finding that while many different types of cells throughout the brain and body express wild-type and mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), striatal neurons (and to a degree, cortical neurons) have a selective vulnerability in Huntington's disease (HD) (Harrison, 2012; Harrison and LaHoste, 2013)... Click to read more

     

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    • Neurodegeneration Related Publications

     

    • Related Research Tools

     

     

    monoubiquitination and regulation newsletter


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    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification (PTM) that involves the covalent attachment of an 8 kDa ubiquitin (Ub) peptide to one or more lysines of a target protein. Modification of a target protein may occur as a single Ub on a single lysine (monoubiquitination), a single Ub on multiple lysines (multiubiquitination) or as ubiquitinated chains in which lysines on the initial protein-conjugated ubiquitin are extended through sequential rounds of ubiquitination (polyubiquitination). The fact that ubiquitin contains seven lysine residues and polyubiquitination has been demonstrated to occur through... Click to read more

     

    Also included in this newsletter:

     

    • Monoubiquitination Related Publications

     

    • Related Research Tools

     

     

    Ras and Rho Prenylation News


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    Ras and Rho GTPases are small G-proteins that cycle between an active GTP-bound form and inactive GDP-bound form.  Ras proteins, known for their role in cell proliferation, and Rho proteins, known for their involvement in cell morphology, have common post-translational modifications (PTMs) that have been identified as contributors to oncogenesis1,2.  Understanding Ras and Rho PTMs have been of interest for drug discovery groups for many years.  Recent studies of signaling pathways mediated by the Ras and Rho PTMs prenylation and/or palmitoylation have identified potential cancer drug targets1,2... Click to read more

     

    Also included in this newsletter:

     

    • Ras and Rho Related Publications

     

    • Ras and Rho Protein Research Tools

     

     

    Invasion by actin-driven membrane protrusions: Cortactin in focus


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    Cortactin’s multiple signaling domains

    The actin binding protein cortactin plays an important role in several cellular functions involving plasma membrane changes that are dependent on a dendritic (i.e., branched) actin network: cell motility employing lamellipodia, clathrin dependent and independent endocytosis, host-pathogen interactions, maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity, and invadopodia-mediated cell invasion1.  Cortactin is a monomeric ~80 kDa protein that derives its name from its intracellular colocalization with cortical actin at the periphery of the cell2.  The amino terminus of cortactin harbors a... Click to read more

     

    Also included in this newsletter:

     

    • Actin Related Publications

     

    • Actin Protein Research Tools

     

     

    Actin Modifications and the Cytoskeleton


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    Actin, a highly expressed and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein, is a major substrate for at least 17 post-translational modifications (PTMs)1.  PTMs are highly dynamic and often reversible processes where a protein’s functional properties are altered by addition of a chemical group or another protein to its amino acid residues.  With roles in cell growth, motility, trafficking, and division, it is imperative to ... Click to read more

     

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    • Actin Related Publications

     

    • Actin Protein Research Tools

     

    Life inside a microtubule pdf newsletter


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    Microtubules (MTs) are dynamic cytoskeletal structures with multiple functions in cell growth, division, and morphological change. This review focuses on the MT lumen as a possible functional entity.  The internal environment of the MT has its own peculiar biophysical state and is largely thought to be excluded from cytoplasmic influence, except for the 2 nm2 lateral pores1 and two 200 nm2 entrances at its ends2,3. Its biophysical state is outside the scope of this article, but it has very interesting vitreous, electromagnetic resonance, and optical properties4.... Click to read more

     

    Also included in this newsletter:

     

    • Microtubule Related Publications

     

    • Microtubule Protein Research Tools

     

    Tau in NeurodegenerationThis month, the focus is on Tau PTMs as Therapeutic Targets. This newsletter features the following:    

     

    • The Many Faces of Tau in Neurodegeneration

     

    • Tau Related Publications

     

    • Tau Protein Research Tools

     


    Click to download our April Newsletter.

     

    Fibronectin matrix assemblyThis month, the focus is on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis drug discovery. This newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Drug Discovery using Fluorescent Fibronectin Proteins

     

    • ECM Related Publications

     

    • ECM Protein Research Tools

     


    Click to download our March Newsletter.

     

    Arf1 and Arf6 Activation Assays and
    GTPase Affinity Beads 

     

    Arf6 activation measured by G-LISA

    Cytoskeleton’s Arf1 and Arf6 activation assays are in two formats: G-LISAs and pull-downs. G-LISAs use a 96 well plate coated with an effector protein that selectively binds active Arf1 or Arf6, followed by quantitation with ELISA techniques. Typical Arf6 G-LISA data are shown (right). Arf pull-downs utilize the Arf1 and Arf6 protein binding domain (PBD) of the effector protein GGA3 (Golgi-localized γ-ear containing, Arf-binding protein 3), which specifically binds the GTP-bound form of Arf1 and Arf6. The GGA3-PBD is covalently conjugated to colored sepharose beads, enabling the “pull-down”of active Arf1-GTP and Arf6-GTP for quantification by Western blotting. 

     

     

    Right: Arf6 activation measured by G-LISA.  Lysates for Arf6 G-LISA were prepared from MDCK cells that were either attached to tissue culture plates (activated) or kept in suspension for 2 hours (control).  12.5, 6.25, and 3.1 μgs of cell lysates were subjected to the G-LISA assay (Cat. # BK133). Absorbance was read at 490 nm. Data are background subtracted.

     

    New Products

    • Arf1 G-LISA Activation Assay Biochem Kit (Cat. # BK132)
    • Arf1 Activation Assay Biochem Kit (Pull-down format) (Cat. # BK032-S)
    • Arf6 G-LISA Activation Assay Biochem Kit (Cat. # BK133)
    • Arf6 Activation Assay Biochem Kit (Pull-down format) (Cat. # BK033-S)
    • GGA3-PBD Beads (Cat. # GGA05)

     

    For more information about the Arf small G-protein click here.

    This month, the focus is on dendritic spine and the Arf6. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Dendritic Spines: Role of Arf6 in Development

     

    • Arf  Related Publications

     

    • Arf Protein Research Tools


    Click to download our January/February Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on small molecule modulators of myosin. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Small molecule modulators of myosin

     

    • Myosin Publications

     

    • Myosin Research Tools and Services


    Click to download our November/December Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on Ubiquitination and the Regulation of Rho Family Pathways. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Ubiquitination and the Regulation of Rho Family Pathways

     

    • Rho Ubiquitination Publications

     

    • Rho Family Research Tools


    Click to download our October Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on Rac1 GTPase and Neurodegeneration. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • The Role of Rac1 GTPase in Neurodegeneration

     

    • Rac1 GTPase and Neurodegeneration Publications

     

    • Rho Family Research Tools


    Click to download our September Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and the Involvement of Rho Family Small G-proteins. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and the Involvement of Rho Family Small G-proteins

     

    • EMT Publication Spotlight

     

    • Rho Family Research Tools


    Click to download our August Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on Polymodifications of tubulin. This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Polymodifications of tubulin: Glutamylation and Glycylation

     

    • Tubulin Publication Spotlight

     

    • Tubulin Research Tools


    Click to download our July Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on the Extracellular Matrix Role in Cell Adhesion. You'll find useful information about exciting ECM topics and products.  This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Fibronectin Regulation of Cell Adhesion

     

    • Fibronectin/ECM Publication Spotlight

     

    • ECM Research Tools


    Click to download our June Newsletter.

    Front Range Cytoskeleton Meeting

    Where:  University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

    When: May 14th, 2012

    Speakers:

    • Jennifer DeLuca (CSU)
    • Brian Doctor (UC SOM)
    • Jay Gatlin (U. Wyoming)
    • Andreas Hoenger (UC Boulder
    • Dinah Loerke (DU)
    • Michael McMurray (UC SOM)
    • Paul Megee (UC SOM)
    • Chad Pearson (UC SOM)
    • Rytis Prekeris (UC SOM)
    • Mark Winey (UC Boulder)

     

    For more information, click to download the meeting flyer.

    Actin Oxidation News

    This month's newsletter focus is on the actin oxidation cycle. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:  

     

    • Functions of the actin oxidation cycle
     
    • Actin Publications
     
    • Actin Research Tools

     

    Click to download our May Newsletter.

    Arf Protein News

    This month's newsletter focus is on Arf protein research. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:  

     

    • Trafficking: Arfs and the Cdc42/Rac connection
     
    • Arf Protein Publications
     
    • Arf Protein Tools

     

    Click to download our April Newsletter.

    G-LISA Cardiac Research News

    This month's newsletter focus is on Rho protein research. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:  

     

    • Cardiac research using G-LISA technology:  Studying the Rho pathway in diabetic cardiomyopathy
     
    • Rho Protein Publications
     
    • Rho Protein Tools

     

    Click to download our March Newsletter.

    FtsZ Protein News

    This month's newsletter focus is on FtsZ Protein. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:

     

    • FtsZ: a tubulin homolog and novel antibiotic target

     

    • FtsZ Protein Publications

     

    • FtsZ Protein Tools

     

    Click to download our January/February Newsletter.

    12/6/2011

    Neuroscience News

    This month's newsletter focus is on neuroscience. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:

     

    • Rho GTPase control of neurite extension

     

    • Neuroscience publications

     

    • Neuroscience tools

     

    Click to download our November/December Newsletter.

    This month's newsletter focus is on Tubulin. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:  

     

    • HDAC6: An update on its interaction with tubulin, HSP90 and Cortactin

     

    • Tubulin publications

     

    • Tubulin tools

     

    Click to download our October Newsletter.

    We are pleased to introduce two new activators  to our G-switch™ product line.  Based on the bacterial CNF toxins, these activators selectively target either Rho (Cat. # CN03) or Rho/Rac/Cdc42 combined (Cat.# CN04). Features of these new reagents include:    

     

    • Potent activation (5 to 10 fold) of Rho family members.

     

    • Direct activation within 2 to 4 hours.

     

    • Effective in multiple cell types derived from different species.

     

    Click to download our September Newsletter.

    This month newsletters focus is on Small G-protein Activation Assays. In this issue you will find useful information on the following topics:

     

    • Measuring Active Small G-Proteins 

     

    • Publication Spotlight

     

    • RhoA G-LISA Activation Assay

     

    • Wide variety of G-LISA Products


    Click to download our August Newsletter.

    This month, the focus is on Actin. You'll find useful information about exciting Actin topics and products.  This months newsletter features the following:    

     

    • Remodeling of the Actin Cytoskeleton 

     

    • Actin Publication Spotlight

     

    • Actin Polymerization Kit

     

    • Wide variety of Actin Products


    Click to download our July Newsletter.